UGC NET Syllabus for Anthropology

Anthropology UGC NET New Syllabus

The University Grants Commission (UGC) NET Bureau revised its syllabus for UGC NET in Anthropology in June, 2019 and the same syllabus will be applicable for the upcoming UGC NET / JRF and SET or SLET examination. The detailed syllabus for paper-1 can be found at UGC NET Syllabus for Paper-1. The details of syllabus of Paper-2 can be downloaded in the pdf format from the following link:

Anthropology UGC NET Syllabus for Paper-2 (New and Updated)

Anthropology UGC NET Old Syllabus

The UGC NET examination old syllabus which was applicable till December, 2018 can be downloaded in the pdf format from the following link. Kindly note that this syllabus is considered as outdated and now not applicable for the upcoming UGC NET examination in Anthropology. You can use it only for your reference purpose.

Anthropology UGC NET Syllabus for Paper-2 (Old or Previous)

The detailed UGC NET old syllabus in Anthropology is given below.

UGC NET Syllabus in Anthropology

NTA UGC NET/JRF/SET/SLET Syllabus for Anthropology, Code No: 07 is given below

UGC NET Paper-2 Syllabus

1. Introduction: Aim, Scope, Historical Development, Relationship with other sciences, Different branches of anthropology and their interrelatedness. Recent and Emerging trends and major developments in all branches of Anthropology (Physical, Archaeological and Social – Cultural). Fieldwork, Ethnography, Comparative method, Observation, Interview, Case study, Genealogical method, Schedules and questionnaires, Statistical tools of Archaeological sites and Data collection.

2. Evolution: Theories of Evolution: Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, Primates and Fossils: Fossil records, Earliest Primates (Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus, Proconsul), and living primates (Distribution, Classification, Characteristics, Phylogeny and Taxonomy).

Comparison of morphological and anatomical features of Man and Ape Erect Posture and Bipedalism.

3. Fossils: Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of early Hominoids Ramapithecus; Australopithecus Africanus; Australopithecus boisei (zinjanthropus); Australopithecus robustus; Meganthropus; Homo habilis; Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of Homo erectus; Homo erectus javanensis; Homo erectus pekinensis; Homo sapiens neanderthalenis Phyiogenetic position, salient features and distribution.

La Chapelle auxsaints; Rhodesian Man Classic / Conservative.

Progressive-Steinheim; Ehringsdorf; Mount Carmel Evidence, distribution and characteristics of Homo sapiens.

Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Predmost; Combe cappelle; Brunn; Chancelade; Offnet.

4. Human Genetics: History and Development; Scope and Branches; Call structure and Division; Mendel’s Laws; Patterns of Inheritance-Autosomal Dominant; Autosomal Recessive; Codominance; Sex linked; sex limited and sex controlled; Multiple alleles.

Linkage and Crossing-over

Lethal genes.

Methods of Studying Inheritance-Twins; Sib-pair; Pedigree.

Role of Heredity and Environment-Stature; Skin Colour; Intelligence.

Genetics of Blood Groups.

ABO System-Two-factor Hypothesis; Multiple Alleles; Rh System

Living Human Populations and Human Diversity

Concept of Race.

Criteria for Racial Classifications : Skin, Hair and Eye colour; Stature; Eyes, Lips and Ears; Face and Lower Jaw; Blood Groups; Dermatoglyphics.

Distribution and Characteristics – Caucasoid; Negroid; Mongoloid.

Racial Classifications – Deniker’s; Hooton’s; Coon, Garn and BirdselTs.

Racial Classification of Indian Populations – Risley’s; Guha’s; Sarkar’s.

5. Chronology

Relative, Absolute and Cultural Geological framework.

Tertiary, Quaternary-Pleistocene, Holocene.

Major Climatic changes during pleistocene.

Glacial and Interglacial periods.

Causes of Ice Ages.

Pluvial and Interpluvial Periods.

Moraines, River Terraces, Loess, Sea-level Changes-Caves, Marine teasaces, Beach, ridges.

Relative dating : Terrace, Stratigraphy, Palaenology, Palaecutology.

Absolute dating : Radio-carbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology.

Cultural Chronology-Three-age system : Stone Age, Copper / Bronze Age, Iron Age.

Palaeolithic Period : Lower palaeolithic, Middle palaeolithic, Upper palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithie-Emergence of Metal Technology, Urban revolution.

6. Typo – Technology and Palaeolithic Cultural Features

Percussion technique: Primary and Secondary making.

Block – on-block / anvil technique; Stone hammer technique; Cylinder hammer technique; Clactonian technique; Levallois technique; Pressure technique; Retouch; Blade and Burin technique; Flake technique; Pecking; Grinding and Polishing; Splinter and groove techniques.

Artefact Typology: Simple flake; Side flake; End flake; Levallois flake; Clactonian flake; Blade; Microlithic blade; Tortoise core / Levalloisiam; Discoid core; Mousterian flake; Prismatic core.

Tool Typology -

Pebble tools; Chopper; Chopping tool

Bifaces-Handaxe; Cleaver

Scrapers-side, end, round, concave, convex

Blade knife; Blunted back blade; Borer / Awl; Burin

Points leaf shape-Laurel Leaf; Willow Leaf

Points-Shouldered Points-Denticulate; Notch

Microliths -

Geometric Types

Non-Geometric Types

Celt-Axe; Adze

Shouldered Celt.

Shoe-last Celt

Grinding Stone


Lower Palaeolithic Cultures-Type-technology, Habitat, Environment Economy, People and Distribution.

Lower Palaeolithic Cultures

Pebble Tool Culture

Oldowan; Sohan; Choukoutien

Acheulian Cultures

Acheulian Cultures of Africa; Acheulian Cultures of Europe;

Acheulian Cultures of India.

Middle Palaeolithic Cultures

Mousterian Culture / Middle Palaeolithic Europe-Habitat, Environment Economy, Social Organisation, Religion, Typo-technology.

Middle Stone Age in Africa

Middle Palaeolithic in India.

Upper  Palaeolithic Culture-Habitat, Environment  Economy, Typo-technology, Social Institution, religion Europe-Perigordian Culture.

Chattelperronean; Gravettian; Aurignacian Culture; Solutrean.

Culture; Magdalenian Culture.

Upper Palaeolithic in India Upper Palaeolithic Art.

7. Holocene Culture

Mesolithic Cultures

Climate changes, Typo technology, Habitat, Economic activity, Socio – religious features.

Europe-Azilian Culture; Tardenoisian Culture; Maglemosian Culture; Kitchen Midden Culture; Natufian Culture.

Indian Mesolithic

Langhnaj; Teri Sites; Birbhanpur; Bagor; Bhimbetka

Adamgarh, Sarainahar Rai, Lekhahlia, Mahadeva.

Mesolithic Art in India

Neolithic ( Early Farming Cultures )

Neolithic of the Near-east

Jericho; Jarmo; Catal Huyuk

Neolithic Cultures of Indian Subcontinent :

Northern Neolithic : Burzahom

Southern Neolithic : Brahmagiri; Sangankallu; Utnur; Telkalakota; Nagarjun Konda.

Eastern Neolithic : Daojali Hading; Sarutaru.

Central Zone (Neo-Chalcolithic) : Navdatoli; Nevasa; Inamgaon.

Indus Civilization : Extant; Characteristics; Chronology; Origin and decline, Continuity with post-Harappan, Indus people and society.

Iron Age :

Megalithic Types : Menhir; Dolmeh / Topikal; Cist; Cairn Circle; Carcophagi.

8. Evolution, Social Structure and Organisation

Evolution : Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear

Diffusion : Neo-evolution; Innovation; Acculturation; Transculturation

Culture : Definitions and Attributes

Functionalism : Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown

Structuralism : Levi-Strauss, Leach.

Culture and Personality : Basic personality configuration-Kardiner and Linton Enculturation; Status and Role; Patterns of Culture; Culture Change; Themes Cultural Relativism; Values; Great and Little Tradition; Civilization; Gender Theories.

Indian Contribution-Theory and Concepts : G. S. Ghurye; N. K. Bose; D. N. Majumdar; M. N. Srinivas; S. C. Dube L. P. Vidyarthi

Aspects of Culture, Organisation of Culture, Institutions

Social Organisation.

Family :

Family of Orientation and Procreation

Structure : Nuclear, Extended, Joint.

Residence : Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Neolocal, Virilocal, Uxorilocal


Rules : Endogamy, Exogamy,

Monogamy, Polygamy : Polygyny, Polyandry.

Mate selection : Cross-cousin marriage, Levirate, Sororate, Sororal

Dowry, Bride price / Bride wealth

Kinship :

Kinship Terms : Classificatory and Descriptive systems

Consanguineal and Affinal

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

Terms of Reference and Address

Descent, Inheritance and Succession :

Patriarchal and matriarchal

Unilineal : Patrilineal, Double

Groups : Tribe, Clan, Phratry, Lineage

Kinship behaviour and relationship; Avoidance and Joking relationship, Incest.

9. Economic and Political Organisation: Religion and Magic

Economic Organisation:

Concept of Property

Primitive Communism.

States of Economy: Collection, Hunting, Fishing, Pastoralism, Cultivation, Shifting and Settled.

Subsistence Economy and Market Economy.


Means of Production

Division of Labour

Political Organisation:

Panchayat – traditional and statutory.

Leadership-clan and tribe.

Kingship and Chiefdom in tribal communities.

Customary Law

Judicial System

Crime and Punishment in Primitive Society.

Religion and Magic:

Primitive Religion: Animism, Totemism, Ancestor Propitiation, Shaman, Priest, Medicine Man.

Tribal Mythology: Origin of universe, Tribe and Clan, Tribal deities.

Magic: Black, White, Preventive, Defensive, Destructive, Imitative, Sympathetic, Witchcraft, Sorcery.

Symbolism and Rituals.

Supernatural powers-Mana, Taboo.

10.  Indian Anthropology: Basic Concepts and Issues

Basic Concepts :

Indian Village as part society, as an isolate.

Caste as a group and system.

Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.

Tribe, Caste, Varna and Caste / Jati.

Notified and Denotified Groups.

Other Backward classes and castes

Sanskritisation, Westernisation, Modernisation

Sacred complex in India

Regionalism and Ethnicity.

Basic Issues :

New Panchayati Raj

Gram Sabha

Women in new Panchayats.

Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Casts Major tribal groups

Tribal states in India.

Tribal Movements for Autonomy, Development Schemes

Tribal Rehabilitation; Democracy and Caste Bonded Labour and Child Labour; Ashram  Schools; Mandal Commission; Dhebar Commission; Emerging Spiritual Leaders (Gurus) in India; Caste among non-Hindus.

UGC NET Paper-2 Syllabus Continues

The following part of the UGC NET syllabus were previously under UGC NET Paper-3, however, as UGC has now only two papers i.e. UGC NET Paper-1 which is general and compulsory for all subjects and UGC NET Paper-2 on the specific subject (including all electives, without options) instead of previous three papers i.e. UGC NET Paper-1 which was general and compulsory for all subjects and UGC NET Paper-2 and Paper-3 on the specific subject, so, now-a-days, the following part is also considered as part of the UGC NET Paper-2 syllabus [this part was previously Paper-3 (Part A & Part B) Syllabus)]

(Core and Elective / Optional)


Theories of Evolution : Physical and Social

Cultural Processes and Principles of Evolution-Convergence, Divergence Parallelism, Adaptive Radiation, Speciation, Irreversibility.

Theories of Evolution-Lamarckism and Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, National Selection in Man.

Evolution and Diffusion of Culture, Theories of Socio-cultural Evolution-Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear, Neo-evolution.

Bipedalism versus Tool making, Biface Technology and big game Hunting, Development of Language.

Human Colonization during late Pleistocene, Emergence of early farming and village communities, Process of urbanisation.

Methodological tools and techniques in Physical, Archaeological and Social-cultural Anthropology.

Unit – II

Distribution, Characteristics, Classification, Position of Man in animal Kingdom.

Primate evolution with reference to Skull, Jaw, Limbs, Dentition and. Brain.

Earliest primates of Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene, Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus and Proconsul.

Living primates – Distribution, characteristics and classification, Phylogeny and taxonomy, Prosimii, Cebodea, Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea.

Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Man, Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Orangutan and Gibbon

Erect posture and bipedalism.

Origin of Man : Theories of Monogenesis, Polygenesis, Hologenesis and Dispersion.

Primate Behaviour

Evolution of Behaviour,

Patterns of Social Behaviour,

Reproductive Behaviour

Early Hominoids

Process of Hominisation and Emergence of Hominoids : Ramapithecus, Australopithecus Africanus, A. Boisei (zinjanthropus), A. Robustus, Meganthropus; Homo habilis-Classification and Controversy.

Homo erectus : Homo erectus javanesis, H.e. pekinesis, Pithecanthropoids of Africa and Europe.

Homo sapien Neanderthalensis-Phyiogenetic position, Salient features, Distribution of La Chappie-Auxsaint, Rhodesian Man, La Ferrasie, Swanscombe, Fontechevade, Krapina, Steinheim, Ehringsdorf, Mount Carmel and Shanidar

Emergence and characteristics of Modern man-Brunn; Chancelade; Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Offnet; Predmost.

Unit – III

History and Development, Concept, Scope and Emerging trends-Relation to other sciences and medicine.

Principles of human genetics and molecular genetics

Mendel’s Laws of inheritance and its application,

Modes of inheritance-Autosomal ( dominant, recessive, co-dominance ),

Sex-linked, Sex-influenced, Sex-limited, Lethal genes, modifying genes, suppressor genes Polygenic, Variable ponetrance and expressivity, Linkage and crossing – over.

Mutation : Gene mutation-Spontaneous, Induced, Mutation rate, Genetic hazards of radiation, Chemical mutagenesis,

Methods of studying heredity

Twin and co-twin control methods,

Pedigree; Sib-pair; Hereditability estimate

Population Genetics.

Hardy – Weinberg law : Definition and application.

Genetic polymorphism : Concept, balanced and transient.

Breeding Population : Mating patterns, random mating, assortative mating, consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient, genetic load, genetic isolates.

Selection : Heterozygous, intra – uterine, fitness, differential, fertility, relaxation.

Genetic Marker : ABO blood groups, Genetics and Distribution in India MNSs blood groups; Rh blood group system

Nomenclature, Fisher’s crossing-over idea, Cis- and trans-position, natural and incomplete antibodies,

Kell and Duffy system-Inheritance,

Secretor factor and Lewis antigens-Interaction,

Dennatoglyphics-History, Identification, Topography

Fingerprints Pattern-Identifications, Inheritance, Pattern intensity, Furuhata and Dankmeijer’s index.

Palmar Dermatoglyphics : Configurational areas, Main-line formula and index, Transversality, Inheritance,

Mid-phalangeal patterns-Identification and types,

Palmar flexion creases and main types,

Sole Prints-Configurational areas, Main-lines formula and index, Transversality, Inheritance,

Toe prints-Pattern, Identification, Inheritance

Dermatoglyphics and Personal Identification

Dermatoglyphics and Diseases ( Chromosomal and others )

Dermatoglyphics and Paternity disputes

Population variation-Qualitative and quantitative

Human Growth-Development and Adaptation.

Human Growth : Definition, Concepts, Differentiation, Maturation and Development.

Phases of Growth : Prenatal, Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, Maturity, Senescence.

Factors affecting growth : Genetic, Environmental, Hormonal, Nutritional, Socio-economic, Secular trends, Gerontology,

Methods of studying human growth and development-Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Mixed longitudinal, Growth curves, Epiphyseal union. Dentition,

Analysis of human physique and body composition-Sheldon, Parnoll Health-Carter,

Human Adpatation to heat, cold, altitude and nutrition,

Nutritional Requirements-Infancy to old age. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins,

Under-nutrition, obesity, Malnutrition,

Physiological Factors in Growth-Haematological, Blood pressure. Heart, rate, Pulse rate.

Unit – IV

Red Cell Enzymes

Genetic variation and Polymorphism-Red cell acid phosphate. G6PD,

Phosphoglucomutase, Adenylate kinase, Adenosine deaminase and Lactate dehydrogenase.

Plasma Proteins : Heredity and Genetic variation of Haptoglobins, Transferring, Immunoglobuline,

Haemoglobin.”Normal and Variant”.

Normal Haemoglobin : HbA and HbF, HbA2

Abnormal Haemoglobin : HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE


HbS and Malaria-Balanced polymorphism,

Cretinism and GePD deficiency

Techniques for Biochemical Analysis



Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Biochemical Pathways (one gene one enzyme hypothesis) and Heredity of Phenylketonurea, Alkaptonurea, Galactosemia, Albinism,

Histocompatibility antigen (HLA)-History, Subtyping, Inheritance, Genetic interaction linkages, Polymorphism, HLA and diseases

Blood groups and diseases : Erythroblastosis fetalis, Smallpox and Malaria.

Gene mapping : Blood groups, HLA, Sex-linked characters

Human Cytogenetics

Identification of human chromosomes, Karyotyping and Nomenclature,

Techniques for studying Chromosomal Structure and Polymorphism,

Autoradiography, Banding, Flprence,

Chromosomal aberrations

Numerical : Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Tripio-X, Triploial-X, Tetra-X, Down’s syndrome, Pateu’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, Sturge-Weber’s syndrome, Triploidy and Tetraploidy,

Structural-Cri-du-chat syndrome and Philadelphia chromosome,

Translocations-D/D, D/G, G/G, Acrocentric / Non-Acrocentric; Metacentric / Metacentric ring chromosome, Ieroctrbmosome mivession, mosaccism,

Sexual differentiation-Genetic and post-genetic,

Application-Genetic counselling, Genetic screen and Genetic engineering and DNA fingerprinting.

Unit – V

Environmental Archaeology

Cultural Ecology,


Settlement Archaeology,

New Archaeology,

Action Archaeology,

Social and Economic approach in Archaeological Studies,

Nature of environmental changes-Climatic, Geomorphic, Faunal and Floral,

Nature of evidence for reconstruction of palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment,

Geomorphological, Sedimentologlcal, Pedological, Palaeontological, Palaeobotanical

Methods of dating

Stratigraphic; Paleomagnetic; Fluorine; Radiocarbon; Potassium-Argon;

Fission Track; Thermoluminescence; Obsidian Hydration;

Archaeomagnetism; Magnetic Reversal; Tree Ring; Varve Clay; Racemization.

Unit – VI

Earliest Cultures ( Primitive Hunter-Gatherers ) : Bipedalism versus tool making-Evidence from Hadar, Laetoli, Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Forz, Importance of (the African Rift valley) Olduvai Gorge Australopithecines and tools, Spread of hominids outside East Africa; Early Man and his culture along the northern Mediterranean, Palestine, South Asia, Java, China and India. Hunting techniques and cooperation; Beginning of the use of fire and its impact in biological and cultural evolution, Development of home base and migration-implication in band formation.

Emergence of Biface Technology : Homo erectus-Biface technology and big game hunting Development of cooperation and possibly language Further expansion of human habitat Geographical extent of biface cultures, Acheulian culture in South Western Europe-Terra Amata, Torralba Ambrona, Pech-lu-Aze Lazaret, Acheulian culture in Africa-Olduvai Gorge, Isimila, Kalambo Falls, Olorgesaillie, Acheulian culture in India-Madrasian (Kortalayar Valley), Didwana, Belan Valley,  Bhimbetka,  Narmada Valley, Nevasa-Chirki Hunsgi, Krishna Valley, Sohan Valley Significance of Hathnora (Narmada Valley), Evidence of Homo Fauna associated with Acheulian tools in Peninsular India.

Flake Tool Complex : Middle Palaeolithic characteristic features and distribution in Europe Technological / economic implications of Evolution of flake tools, Middle Palaeolithic Cultures in North Africa, Western Europe, Central Europe, Near and Middle East, Central Asia-Tabun Tashik Task Shanidar, First human burials and emergence of rituals, Middle Palaeolithic culture in India-Bellan Valley, Bhimbetka, Nevasa and Narmada, Eastern Peninsula, Typology and Technology of Middle Palaeolithic tools in India Human expansion in Temperate regions.

Blade Tool Complex :

Advanced Hunter-Gatherers ( Upper Palaeolithic Cultures )

Evolution of blade and burin technology Use of bone and antler as raw materials Upper Palaeolithic cultures and Homo sapiens, Upper Palaeolithic cultures of Western and Central Europe and North Africa-Dabban, Chatelperronian, Perigordian, Aurigacian, Gravettian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, Pavlovian, Szeletian, Emergence and development of art-Painting, Engraving, Sculpture, Motivation, Upper Palaeolithic habitations and economy-cave and open-air settlements, reindeer and mammoth hunting, Populating the New World, Upper Palaeolithic in India-Reningunta, Billa Surgam, Patne, Bhimbetka, Son and Bellan Valleys, Visadi, Pushkar, Gunjan Valley.

Unit – VII

Final Hunter – Gatherer and Incipient Cultivators ( Mesolithic Cultures )

Post-Pleistocene environmental changes, Development of microlithic technology, composite tools and bow-arrow, Important Mesolithic cultures and sites of Europe and the Near-east-Azilian, Tardenoisian, Maglemosian, Ertebolle, Natufian and Epi-Palaeolithic.

Mesolithic cultures of India : Western India-Bagor, Tilwara, Pushkar lake, Lankhnaj, Bombay Coast, Central India-Adamgarh, Bhimbetka, Baghaikhor, Chopani Mando, Ganga Valley-Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaba, Eastern India-Birbhanpur, South India-Eastern Ghats and East Coast

Mesolithic economy and society

Mesolithic art

Beginnings of agriculture, evidences from Mount Carmel Caves, Juricho, Beidha Karim Shahir, Mehergarh

Hoabinbian of South East Asia, North East India.

Emergence of Village Farming way of Life ( Neolithic Revolution ) : Economic and Social consequences of food production-settled life, population growth, craft specialisation, class formation, political institutions, Ecological perspective of early agriculture-Nuclear zones of the Near-east, South East Asia, North East India, Important early farming centres and sites in the old world (excluding India)-Jericho, Catal Huyuk, Jarmo, Beidha, Khirokitia, Zawi Chemi, Shanidar, Early cultivation in New Guinea, Root crops and rice cultivation in South East Asia, Beginning of agriculture in India-Ganga Valley, Mehergarh, Koldihwa.

Diffusion of Village Farming : Way of Life in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent, Pakistan-Kim Ghul Mohammad, Rana Ghundai, Gumlam Sarai Khola, Kashmir Valley-Burzahom, Gufkral, Rajasthan-Ahar, Gilund (Ahar Culture), Central India-Nagada, Kayatha, Navdatoli, Eran (Kayatha, Ahar and Malwa Cultures), Northern Deccan-Nevasa, Chandoli, Diamabad Inamgaon, Prakash, Bahal (Malwa and Jorwer Centres), South India-Maski, Brahmagiri, Sangankallu, Tekkalkota, Piklihal Utnur, Halbur, Palavoy, Paiyampalli, T-Narsipur, Ashmounds, Nagarjunakonda (Neolithic Culture), Neolithic Cultures of Eastern and North Eastern India—Daojali Hading, Kuchai, tool types, distribution and affinities with S.E. Asia.

Birth of Civilization ( Bronze Age ) : Rise of civilization in Mesopotamia – Evidences from Ubaid, Malaf, Jamdet Nasr, Early dynasties.

Indus Civilization : Expansion of village communities in the Indus and Gagra / Hakra Valleys-Amri, Kot Diji, Jalilpur, Kalibangan, Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Mature Indus Culture-Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Chanhundaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotada, Town planning, Architecture, Metal technology, Art, Writing, Late Harappan Culture-Expansion into Kutch, Gujarat, Punjab. Haryana, Western UP, Rojadi, Rangpur, Ropar, Mitathal and Alamgirpur, Decline of the Indus Civilization-Theories, Environmental decay, Hydrological changes, Tectonic movement, Climatic changes, External invasion, Aftermath of the Indus Civilization-OCP Copper. Hoards.

Biginning of Iron Age and Second Urbanization : Economic and Social implication of Iron technology, Black and Red ware culture-Noh, Attranji, Khera, Ahichichatra, Painted Grey Ware ( PGW ) Culture-Distribution, Economy and Society, Norther Black Polished ( NBP ) ware culture-first cities in the Ganga Valley and emergence of the Mauryan Empire, Role of Ecology in the urbanization of the Ganga Valley, Iron and Megalithic burials, Megalithic types-Southern Indian Inhabitation, Economy, Megalithic ritual, Living Megalithic cultures of Eastern and Central India.

Unit – VIII

The Meaning and Nature of Culture :

Humanistic and anthropological perspectives, distinguished, attributes of anthropological concept of culture :

Learned and historically derived



Behaviourally manifested

Functional integration and holistic perspective

Dynamic changing

Language as vehicle of culture

The contribution of E. B. Tylor; A. L. Kroeber; B. Malinowski

Emerging areas :

Medical Anthropology; Ecological Anthropology; Urban anthropology.

Development Anthropology

Evolution and Diffusion of Culture

Theories of socio-cultural evolution

Unilinear ( Morgan )

Universal ( White and Child )

Multilinear ( Julian Steward )

Contribution of British, German and American diffusionists.

Contemporary trends in evolutionary studies : Neo-evolution, Acculturation, Diffusion, culture contact and social-cultural change, Invention, Innovation Technology and culture change, especially affecting women.

Functionalism :

Form, function, meaning and distinguishing tenets of Functionalism in Social-cultural anthropology :

Malinowski’s and Radcliffe-Brown contribution


Social structure, social organisation and social system



Structuralism in Social Anthropology

Psychological Anthropology :

Culture and personality – Benedict and Mead, Basic personality Linton, Kardiner, Cora Du Bois

Anthropological approaches in national character studies Family, Marriage and Kinship, Typology and functions of family Nuclear, extended and joint family, Preferential marriage, functions of descent groups, lineage and clan

Kinship terrninology and Kinship behaviour.

Unit – IX

Contribution to social-cultural anthropology by :

E. B. Tylor

Lewis Morgan

Franz Boas

A. L. Kroeber

B. Malinowski

A. R. Radcliffe-Brown


C. Levi-Strauss

Ralph Linton

Robert Redfield

Margaret Mead

Methodology of Anthropological Research

Ethnography as a method.

Fieldwork tradition in anthropology : Basic characteristics of field work method.

Quantitative and qualitative tools and techniques : Survey, Observation, Case study, Interview, Schedule, Questionnaire, Genealogy, Group discussion, Mapping.

Comparative methods in social – cultural anthropology :

Cross-cultural comparison

Controlled comparison

Reinterpretation, Restudy, Evaluation research Participatry Rural Appraisal (PRA) Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Intervention Research, Process and Impact Analysis.

Unit – X

Weaker sections in Indian population : Scheduled Castes ( SC ), Scheduled Tribes ( ST ) and Primitive Tribal Groups ( PTG ), Denotified communities, Basic of labelling as ST and SC according to Constitution.

Tribal problems and Welfare measures relating to :


Shifting cultivation

Land Alienation


Health and Sanitation / Nutrition


Bonded Labour


Gender Issues

Development Strategies (Plan / Sub – Plans ) :

Special Programmes

Large-Scale Agricultural Multipurpose Societies (LAMPS)

Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP)

Community Development Project (CDP)

Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP)

Component Plan for SC

Tribal Youth Self-Employment Scheme (TRYSEM)

Reservation for women in Panchayati Raj.

Role of voluntary organisations in development Tribal problems of identity, autonomy ethicity.

Tribal movements : Revivalistic / Nativistic population displacement due to. development schemes such as dam construction, Revitalisation of local history, problems of pseudo-Tribals to become ST.

Indian Society and Culture :

Caste as a group and as a system of social segmentation and integration.

Caste in modern India, Changing dimensions of caste.

Village studies in India : Primitive society as a conceptual model of village ethnography.

Concepts : Little and Great tradition, universalisation and parochia-lisation, dominant caste, Sanskritisation and Westernisation, sacred complex, Role of city in change. Folk-urban and tribe-caste continuum.

Indian Masters :

G.S. Ghurye

N.K. Bose

D.N. Majumdar

Verrier Elwin

M.N. Srinivas

S.C. Dube

L.P. Vidhyarthi

Anthropological approaches in community, Health, Natural health, Promotion and disease control programmes such as population control, Nutrition, Mother and child health, Health Education, Leprosy, TB, AIDS, etc.

Anthropology in Education and Communication :

Rural development

Gender perspectives

Relocation, Rehabilitation : Earthquakes, Floods, Disasters

Human resource training and management.


Anthropology is the study of humankind, past and present that draws and builds upon knowledge from the social sciences and biological sciences, as well as the humanities and the natural sciences. The term anthropology originates from the Greek anthrōpos, "human being" (understood to mean humankind or humanity), and -logia, "study." Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology in Great Britain and the US has been distinguished from ethnology and from other social sciences by its emphasis on cross-cultural comparisons, long-term in-depth examination of context, and the importance it places on participant-observation or experiential immersion in the area of research. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativism, holism, and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism. Ethnography is one of its primary methods as well as the text that is generated from anthropological fieldwork.

Solved Question Papers of UGC NET in Anthropology

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About UGC NET in Anthropology

The UGC NET in Anthropology syllabus, question pattern, old examination questions papers along with answer keys (solved questions) can be found at UGC NET in Anthropology .