UGC NET Syllabus for Population Studies, Code No: 15
Population Studies: Population study is a study of a group of individuals taken from the general population who share a common characteristic, such as age, sex, or health condition. This group may be studied for different reasons, such as their response to a drug or risk of getting a disease.
Question Pattern: There will be two question papers - UGC NET Examination in Population Studies, Paper II and Paper III. Paper II will have 100 marks in total whereas Paper III will have 150 marks in total. Paper II will cover fifty (50) objective type questions, whereas the Paper III will have seventy five (75) objective type questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. All questions are compulsory in both the papers. The objective type questions will include multiple choices, matching type, true / false and assertion-reasoning type.
Unit – I: Source of Population Data
World: Census, Registration of vital events. Demographic Surveys, Population Registers.
India: Census, Civil Registration System (CRS), Sample Registration Scheme (SRS), National Sample Survey (NSS), Demographic surveys and other sources.
Nature and limitation of data from each of the sources. Data appraisal : evaluation and adjustment of data.
Unit – II: Methods of Demographic / Population Analysis
Rates, Ratios, Proportions, Percentages, Person, Months / Years, incidence, prevalence.
Rates of Population Growth : Arithmetic, Geometric and Exponential Rates of Growth; Doubling Time; Location of Events in Time; the Lexis diagram.
Cohort and cross – sectional indicators.
Crude rates and standardized methods.
Methods of population projections.
Inter – censual / Post – censual estimates of population.
Unit – III: Population Composition and Change
Spatial and temporal changes in the size, composition & distribution of population – global perspective with special focus on India.
Composition of India’s population.
Cultural Composition Concept of ageing.
Unit – IV: Nuptiality and Fertility
Concepts and measures of Nuptiality and Fertility Levels, trends and differentials of Fertility in India Sources of data on fertility
Determinants of fertility – Framework of fertility analysis – Davis & Blake’s intermediate variable framework of fertility; Bongaart’s proximate determinants of fertility.
Unit – V: Mortality, Morbidity and Health
Mortality – Concepts and measures.
Mortality trends, levels and determinants in India with special reference to infant mortality and maternal mortality.
Cause of Death statistics.
Life Table: Basic concept of the Life Table; types and forms of Life Table and Model Life Table.
Concepts and definitions of health and morbidity; measures of morbidity; Sources of data on morbidity and mortality.
Reproductive Health: Concept and framework; Reproductive morbidity; prevalence of RTI (reproductive tract infection), STDs and HIV / AIDS; estimated levels and interventions.
Unit – VI: Migration and Urbanization
Basic Concepts and definitions Types of migrations – internal and international Trends and differentials of migration Determinants and consequences of migration.
Concepts and definitions of urban; trends and patterns of urbanization in India.
Issues in urbanisation and urban problems in developing countries with focus on India.
Unit – VII: Population Theories
Theories of Population Growth – Malthus to modern; limits to population growth.
Theory of Demographic Transition.
Theories related to fertility.
Theories related to migration and urbanization.
Unit – VIII: Population, Development and Environment
Concepts, definitions, relevance and measurement.
Inter – relationship between population growth, environment and sustainable development with special reference to India.
Human Development Index.
Implications of population growth on food supply, water, sanitation, housing, employment, health, education, etc.
Ecological balance and its maintenance.
Unit – IX: Population and Gender
Concept of gender – its relationship with components of population – fertility, mortality, migration.
Status of women – social, economic, cultural and health.www.netugc.com
Women empowerment and its demographic consequences.
Unit – X: Population Policies and Programs
Population policies in the context of growth, structure, distribution and quality of life; Policies related to medical termination of pregnancy (MTP), age at marriage, sex determination tests, etc.
National and State population policies in India.
Evolution of Family Welfare Program in India.
Program components and organization at different levels (Nation, State, District).
Goals and achievements of the Family Welfare Program Methods of Program Impact Assessment Impact Assessment.
Elective Course – I: (Techniques of Population Analysis)
Rates, ratios, proportion and percentages; Sources of data for their computation in population analysis.
Population growth rates : Decadal growth rates, arithmetic, geometric and exponential growth rates. Concept of population stabilization and net reproduction rate of unity.
Nuptiality indicators – their computation and sources of data
Fertility indicators – their computation and sources of data
Cross – sectional or Period indicators: CBR, GFR, ASFR, ASMFR, TMFR, TFR, GRR, NRR, replacement level fertility, Birth order statistics.
Cohort indicators : Children ever born, completed family size.
Age standardization or adjustment,
Mortality indicators – their computation and sources of data.
CDR, ASDR, IMR, under – five, neo – natal mortality, post – natal mortality; MMR.
Measures of pregnancy wastage.
Computation of Life Table.
Model Life Tables.
Morbidity Indicators: Incidence, Prevalence and Case – fatality ratio.
Migration and its measurement
Population Estimation: Inter – censual and Post-censual, Methods of Population Projection.
Indirect methods of estimation of demographic rates
Estimation of Fertility.
Estimation of infant mortality.
Estimation of adult mortality.
Elective Course – 2: (Population, Settlements and Human Ecology)
Spatial Distribution of Population:
Measures of density and concentration; factors affecting spatial distribution and temporal changes in density and concentration; world / India’s pattern of population distribution.
Basic concepts and definitions; circulation, commutation, mobility, migration – their environmental impact assessment; determinants and consequences of internal / international migration; urbanization and migration in developed and developing countries; processes of sub – urbanization; rural urban continuum.
Theories of migration, pull and push factors, Lee’s theory of migration; Ravenstein’s Law of migration. Peterson’s typology; Stouffer’s model of Intervening opportunities and competing migrants; gravity models; Harris – Todaro Model of Migration.
Human Settlements: Classification, Evolution and Growth; Morphology, Landuse and Functions; Spatial Organisation; Principles of Centrality and Hierarchy; Methods of measuring centrality and hierarchy; Central Place Region.
3. Human Ecology
Classical and modern views on the subject; human ecological processes ( e.g., concentration – dispersion dichotomy, centripetal – centrifugal forces ) and their role in shaping human ecological organisation.
Human ecological organizations : Physical, socio – economic, cultural; formal / non – formal.
Ecological imbalance and strategies to combat it :
Ecological imbalances caused by natural factors; human factors; impact on human ecological systems; man’s perception and adjustment to such imbalances; sustainable population and sustainable settlements in the context of a regional ecosystem.
Elective Course – 3: (Population, Development and Environment)www.netugc.com
Divergent views regarding the relationship between population and economic development.
Is population growth an obstacle to economic development? Coale & Hoover study, Limits to growth study, Enke’s investment model approach.
Population growth is conducive to economic development – views of Colin Clark, Estner Boserup, Julian Simon.
‘Development is the best contraceptive’ – Bucharest’ controversy.
Changing Concept of Development – Emphasis on Equality – towards human centered development – welfare approach – investment in human capital approach, Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), Human Development Index (HDI).
Population and development impact on natural resources and the environment. Land degradation, deforestation, air and water pollution, global warming biodiversity. Impact on quality of life – health, employment, urbanization, poverty, housing, transport, safe drinking water, sanitation, etc. Population, environment and sustainable development.
Elective Course – 4: (Family Welfare Program in India)
Historical Evolution of the Program: 1952 through current period.
Organizational Structure – Subcentre, Primary Health Centre, Community Health Centre, District and State Centre.
Program Service Infrastructure:
Service Units Services
Quality of Services
Components and Services
Ante – Natal Care
Post – Natal Care
Acute Respiratory Infection
RTI / STD
Family Planning Methods : Advantages / disadvantages, effectiveness.
Program Achievement, Program goals in NPP – 2000.
Evaluation of FW Program and data requirement.
Management Information System.
Indicators based on service statistics: Acceptance rates, percentage needs met, Couple protection rate.
Periodic Surveys: National Sample Surveys, Ad hoc Surveys and indicators used for assessment.
Sample Registration System.