Research Report: Research report is the written description of research providing information about its aim and objectives, scope, limitation, methodologies, source of information used, equipments, findings and all such necessary information. The writing of the research report is the last and final steps of the research work done by a researcher without which his/her work remain incomplete.
a) Objectives of Research Report: The result of every research needs communication to others, who actually needs it. This can only be done by writing the research report. The main objectives of the research report are:
i) A Permanent Record of the Research: The written report is a permanent record of the research done by the researcher for the coming generation.
ii) Increase Knowledge Stock: The aim of research report is to make the people aware of the new information, new standards and new interpretation received from the research. Knowledge of human being increases if it is in the form which can be communicated to others.
iii) Useful for Researcher: With the help of research report, many other small subjects of research can be arranged systematically and a definite principle can be formulated. Thus, the report should be written in such a way that it may help in the formulation of new principles for other researchers.
iv) Validation of Other's Conclusions: Research is the process through which every one can learn from the others. In research report by way of writing foot note, references, etc. the views and suggestions of others, the scholar pays homage to them.
v) Examination of Validity: The validity of any research work can be judged by others based on the research report only.
vi) Communication Medium: The aim of research report is to communicate the knowledge of the researcher to the others.
b) Scope of Research Report: The scope of research report is that through this report one can examine the validity of the research study. In research report, all the facts should be presented so as to prove the validity or invalidity of the facts by careful observation and experimentation.
c) Characteristic of a Research Report: In writing a research report, the research scholar should keep in mind the following points-
i) Communalism: Research results are public property;
ii) Universalism: The results should be independent of gender, race, colour, creed, etc;
iii) Unbiased: Results should not be manipulated to serve some specific profit. In writing a research work, the research scholar should keep an eye on the political and personal biasness; no way should it influence the research report.
iv) Share All: It is good to share the results, experience, honor, as well as blame with others.
v) Openness: The government or the research funding agencies have spent the amount collected from tax payers in the research. So every member of the society has the right to access to the research report.
Some other characteristics of research report are:
i) Should be systematic and attractive. The report should be clear to the point and easy in understanding, so proverb and exaggeration should be avoided;
ii) The title, graph and figures should be presented only when it increases the value of the research study;
iii) Similar type of facts must not be repeated in the report;
iv) Outside resources used should be noted as such so as to increase its retrieval. Pay homage to others contribution
v) Problem and difficulties faced during the research work should be nicely presented; it will guide the further researchers.
vi) A research report should be long enough to cover the subject matter and short enough to maintain interest. The research report should sustain the reader’s interest throughout the chapters.
d) Content of Research Report: The content of the Research Report is as follows:
i) Preliminary Pages: The preliminary pages carry the title and date followed by declaration, foreword and acknowledgements. Then there should be table of contents followed by list of tables, graphs, charts and abbreviation used.
The front page should contain the title of the research work, name of the author, date, and names of any sponsors of the research. The research title should reflect the keywords of the research work, for easy information retrieval.
In the preface page, why the researcher undertook the current research work, what was his/her motivation factor for choosing this topic, etc should be stated.
The researcher may acknowledge the services or guidance of certain individuals, organizations on which success of the research project has been dependent on the acknowledgement page.
Today, many of the research reports are hosted over institutional repositories. To do so an abstract or summary is very much felt. Considering this, an abstract or summary of the whole research findings and recommendations should be enclosed in the research report itself. The abstract or summary should cover the aim of the research, the methods employed, the outcome of the research, and any theoretical implications. A two hundred worded abstract is more than enough.
ii) Main Text: The main text of the report carries the following item:
* Introduction: Introduction should mention the background of the topic (from, where the research problem emerges), aim and objective of the research work, and an explanation of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. There should be a steady flow of ideas with the introduction page and the research documentation as a whole.
* Literature Review: The literature review is not only a summary or series of annotation or description of others work, rather it is a critical judgment on others work. The researcher should judge the literature like a judge appraising the argument of a lawyer making a case and should conclude it by making a note of summing up. The result of the hard working, reading, notes taking and analysis of others work will give to fruitful results in the form of literature review. The literature review can be arranged according to the chronological order as well as development of ideas.
* Main Report: The main body of the report should be presented in logical sequence and broken down into identifiable sections. One can use table, graphs and charts regarding primary data collection in this chapter. In data analysis it would be better if the researcher uses the whole numbers instead of percentage, using percentage will lose the actual power of the data. Whenever the research scholar provides arguments, it should always be supported by data gathered.
* Conclusion: Towards the end of the main text, the researcher should again put down the results of his / her research clearly and precisely. In this chapter nothing new should be introduced. Its whole content should be based on the content of the preceding chapters. In conclusion chapter the research scholar should also justify whether the hypothesis that has been adopted proved or not, methodology used is alright or not, mention the problems encountered and lastly, should point out the researcher scholars own contribution to the world of knowledge or what the readers will benefit from the current research work. Ideas for further research should also be mentioned including the skill, attitude, capabilities, and qualities to conduct such type of research work. Possible recommendation for other research workers working on the same line should be stated. What existing practices should be revised in the light of the current research, and so on should be made statement wise in the recommendations pages.
* References / Bibliographies: All the sources of information from which information have been taken should clearly be described so that any person can verify these.
* End Report: At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data. Any extensive list should be included in an appendix rather than in the actual report.
It is expected that the report completed for the course is original for the class and completed solely by the researcher. It is unethical to prepare a report that is the same, or basically similar, to a report completed for another purpose.
The research report must be legible and word processed; appropriate margins and other formatting as outlined in the research manual should be followed. The report must adhere to appropriate rules of grammar, sentence structure, transitions between paragraphs, etc.
Finally, before submission of the research report to the competent authority, the research scholar should check and recheck it for several times for errors and omission, consistency and so on. If he/she is not a literature expert then he/she can also consider sending the research documentation for editing to a literature expert before its submission to the competent authority.
e) Conclusion: A research report is an eye-opener to others to judge the work done by the researcher in the field of given research. The research report consists of research that one does on the topic as well as interpretation of the information, including applicability to the teaching assignment. It explains how one will use the information that comes to the focus, how it will impact on teaching pedagogy, discipline methods, curriculum development, assessment, etc.