UGC NET Syllabus for Geography

UGC NET Syllabus for Geography, Code No: 80

Geography: Geography is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of the man-land relationship, and research in the Earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities - not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Geography is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography.

Question Pattern: There will be two question papers - UGC NET Examination in Geography, Paper II and Paper III. Paper II will have 100 marks in total whereas Paper III will have 150 marks in total. Paper II will cover fifty (50) objective type questions, whereas the Paper III will have seventy five (75) objective type questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. All questions are compulsory in both the papers. The objective type questions will include multiple choices, matching type, true / false and assertion-reasoning type.

Paper II Syllabus

1. Geomorphology: Fundamental concepts; Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces; Denudation and weathering; Geosynclines, continental drift and plate tectonics; Concept of geomorphic cycle; Landforms associated with fluvial, glacial, arid, coastal and karst cycles.

2. Climatology: Compbsition and structure of the atmosphere; Heat budget of the earth; Distribution of temperature; Atmospheric pressure and general circulation of winds; Monsoon and jet stream; Tropical and temperate cyclones; Classification of world climates; Koppen*s and Thoramwaite’s schemes.

3. Oceanography: Ocean deposits; Coral reefs; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Density of sea water; Tides and ocean currents.

Bio – Geography: World distribution of plants and animals; Forms and functions of ecosystem; Conservation and management of ecosystems; Problems of pollution.

4. Geographic Thought: General character of Geographic knowledge during the ancient and medieval period; Foundations of Modern Geography; Determinism and possibilism; Areal differentiation and spatial organisation.

5. Population Geography: Patterns of world distribution;. Growth and density of population; Patterns and processes of migration; Demographic transition.

Settlement Geography: Site, situation, types, size, spacing and internal morphology of rural and urban settlements; City – region; Primate city; Rank – size rule; Settlement hierarchy; Christaller’s Central Place theory; August Losch’s theory of market Centres.

6. Economic Geography: Sectors of Economy: primary, secondary,. tertiary and quaternary; Natural resources: renewable and non-renewable.

Measurement of agricultural productivity and efficiency; Crop combination and diversification; Von Thimen’s Model.

Classification of industries: Weber’s and Losch’s approaches; Resource based and footloose industries.

Models of transportation and transport cost: Accessibility and connectivity.

7. Political Geography: Heartland and Rimland theories; Boundaries and frontiers; Nature of administrative areas and Geography of public policy and finance.

Social Geography: Ethnicity; tribe; dialect; language, caste and religion; Concept of social well-being.

Cultural Geography: Culture – areas and cultural regions; Human races; Habitat; Economy and Society of tribal groups.www.netugc.com

8. Regional Planning: Regional concept in Geography; Concept of planning regions; Types of regions; Methods of regional delineation; Regional planning in India; Indicators of development; Regional imbalances; Evolution, nature and scope of town planning with special reference to India, and Fundamentals of Town and Country planning.

9. Geography of India: Physiographic divisions; Climate: Its regional variations; Vegetation types and vegetation regions; Major soil types; Irrigation and agriculture; Population distribution and growth; Settlement patterns; Mineral and power resources; major industries and industrial regions.

10. Cartography:  Types of maps: Techniques for the study of spatial patterns of distribution; Choropleth; Isopleth and Chorochromatic maps and pie diagrams; Mapping of location – specific data; Accessibility and flow maps.

Remote sensing and Computer application in mapping; Digital mapping; Geographic Information System (GIS).

Statistical Methods : Data sources and types of data; Frequency distribution and cumulative frequency ; Measures of central, tendency; Selection of class intervals for mapping; Measures of dispersion and concentration; Standard deviation; Lorenz Curve; Methods of measuring association among different attributes; Simple and Multiple correlation; Regression.

Nearest – neighbour analysis; Scaling techniques; Rank score; Weighted score; Sampling techniques for Geographical analysis.

Paper III (Part A & Part B) Syllabus

[Core and Elective / Optional]

Unit – I

Geomorphology: Fundamental concepts ; Factors controlling’ land form development; Endogenetic and Exdgenetic forces; Denudation process: weamering. and erosion, Geosynclines, mountain building, continental drift and plate tectonics; Concept of Geomorphic Cycle; Landforms associated with fluvial, glacial, arid, coastal and karst cycles, Slope forms and processes; Environmental and Applied Geomorphology.

Unit – II

Climatology: Composition and structure of the atmosphere; Insolation ; Heat budget of the earth; Distribution of temperature, atmospheric pressure and general circulation of winds; Monsoons and jet streams ; Stability and instability of the atmosphere; Air-masses; Fronts, temperate and tropical cyclones ; Types and distribution of precipitation; Classification of world climates ; Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’si schemes; Hydrological Cycle; Global warming.

Unit – III

Oceanography: Origin of ocean basins; Bottom relief of Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; Ocean deposits; Coral reefs; Temperature and salinity of the Oceans; Density of sea water; Tides and ocean currents; Sea-level changes.

Bio-Geography: Physical factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Fbrms and functions of ecosystem: Forest, grassland, marine and mountain ecosystem; Bio-diversity and its depletion through natural and man induced causes? Conservation and management of ecosystems; Environmental hazards and problem® of pollution; Ozone depletion.

Unit – IV

History of Geographic Thought: General character of Geographic knowledge during the ancient and medieval period; Foundations of Modern Geography : Contribution of German, French, British and American schools; Conceptual and methodological developments during the 20th century; Changing paradigms; Man and Environment, determinism and possibilism, area! dinerentiation and spatial organisation; Quantitative revolution; Impact of positivism, humanism, radicalism and behaviouralism in Geography.

Unit – V

Population Geography: Nature, scope, subject matter and recent trends; Patterns ofworld distribution, growth and density of population; Policy issues; Patens and processes of migration; Demographic transition; Population-resource regions.

Settlement Geography: Site, situation, types, size, spacing and internal morphology of rural and urban settlements; Ecologicalprocesses of urban growth; Urban fringe; City – region; Settlement systems; Primate city; Rank-Size rule; Settlement hierarchy; Christaller’s Central Place theory; August Losch’s theory of market centres.

Unit – VI

Economic Geography: Location of economic activities and spatial organization of economies; Glassification of economies; Sectors of Economy: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary; Natural resources : Renewable and non – renewable; Conservation of resources.

Agricultural Geography: Concept and techniques of delimitation of agricultural regions; Measurement of agricultural productivity and efficiency; Crop combinations and diversification; Von Thunen’s Model; Agricultural systems of the world.

Industrial Geography: Classification of industries: Weber’s and Losch’s approaches; Resource based and footloose industries.

Geography of Transport and Trade: Models of transportation and transport cost; Accessibility and connectivity: Inter-regional and Intra-regibnal: Comparative cost advantages.www.netugc.com

Unit – VII

Political Geography: Definition and scope of Political Geography ; Geopolitics; Global strategic views (Heartland and Rimland theories );-Concept of nation, state and Nation-State; Boundaries and frontiers; Politics of world resources; Geography and Federalism.

Social Geography: Nature and scope of social geography ; Social structure and social processes; Elements of Social Geography—ethnicity, tribe, dialect, language, caste and religion; Concept of Social well – being.

Cultural Geography: Nature and scope of Cultural Geography; Environment and culture; Concept of culture-areas and cultural regions; Theories of tribal groups;  I )welling places as cultural expressions.

Unit – VIII

Regional Planning: Regional concept in Geography; its application to planning; Concept of planning region; Regional hierarchy; Types of regions and methods of regional delineation; Conceptual and theoretical framework of regional planning; Regional planning in India: Concept of development; Indicators of development; Regional imbalances.

Unit – IX

Geography of  India: Physiographic divisions; Climate : Its regional variations ; Vegetation types and vegetation regions; Major soil types ; Coastal and Marine resources; Water resources; Irrigation; Agriculture; Agroclimatic regions; Mineral and power resources; Major industries and industrial regions ; Population distribution and growth; Settlement patterns; Regional disparities in social and economic development.

Unit – X

Cartography: Map as a tool in Geographical studies ; Types of maps: Techniques for the study of spatial patterns of distribution; Single purpose and composite maps; Choropleth, Isopleth and Chorochromatic maps and pie diagrams; Mapping of location specific data; Accessibility and flow maps.

Remote sensing and computer application in mapping; Digital mapping; Geographic Information System (GIS) : Thematic maps.

Statistical Methods: Data sources and types of data; Statistical diagrams; study of frequency distribution and cumulative frequency; Measures of central tendency; Selection of class intervals for mapping; Measures of dispersion and concentration; Standard deviation; Lorenz curve; Methods of measuring association among different attributes; Simple and multiple correlation; Regression.

Measurement of spatialpatterns of distribution; Nearest-neighbour analysis; Scaling techniques, rank score, weighted score; Sampling techniques for geographical analysis.

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