E-documents: The term e-document or e-text is a broader term that
includes the document in ASCII text format. It may be content from a website,
blog, wiki, discussion forum, discussion group, online journal and so on.
salient features of electronic documents are:
i) They can be delivered to the desktop (although the
desktop needs a computer)
ii) They can be read by more than one person at a time.
iii) The text can be searched.
iv) They can include multimedia and graphics, in color, at
v) They can be published more quickly than paper
vi) They can be interactive; that is, they can foster an
online exchange of ideas by e-mail.
vii) Have the ability to make
hyperlinks, both internally and to other publications. This means that readers
can link directly to references cited in an article and also, with additional
effort on the part of publishers and indexers, to later articles that cite the
article they are reading.
viii) Articles can be retrieved
directly through links from abstracting and indexing databases.
ix) The content can be
reproduced, forwarded, modified leading to possible problems with copyright
protection and preserving authenticity.
main disadvantage is that, unless they are also printed on paper, they require
specialized equipment for reading.
a) E-journal: E-Journal is an all-electronic,
peer-reviewed periodical in a specific field or in a general field of interest.
In the E-Journal environment
the creation, transmission, storage, interpretation, alteration and replication
of electronic "text" including "display" takes place in
electronic form. Some electronic journals are
online-only journals; some are online versions of printed journals, and some
consist of the online equivalent of a printed journal, but with additional
are subscription-based, or allow pay-per-view access. An increasing number of
journals are now available as open access journals, requiring no subscription.
Most working paper archives and articles on personal homepages are free, as are
collections in Institutional repositories and Subject repositories.
electronic journals are published both in HTML and Portable Document Format
(PDF) formats, but some are available in only one of the two. Some e-journals
are available over the internet while some others are distributed on CD-ROMs,
or by way of e-mail.
b) E-book: An e-book
also called eBook, ebook, electronic book, is an electronic (or digital)
equivalent of a conventional printed book and is a proprietary file formats.
Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the
production of a printed book, though in many instances they may not be put on
sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy
books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of Robotic
Scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the
original print edition. Scanning a book produces an image file, which must then
be converted into text format by an Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
program. Occasionally, an e-book may also be produced by re-entering the text
from a keyboard. As a newer development, sometimes only the e-book form is
produced by the publisher; it is usually possible technically to convert this
to a printed book by short-run printing.
A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to
choosing a format for production of e-book. Formats available include, but are
by no means limited to image file
(.png, .jpg), Microsoft Word or plain text files (.doc or .txt), Rich Text Format (.rtf), Hyper Text Markup Language
(HTML) (.html), Open Electronic Book Package Format (OPF), Portable Document
Format (.pdf), etc.
The hardware device used to read books in digital format is
known as an e-book device or e-book reader. The e-book reader includes
FlipViewer®, Haali Reader and FBReader,
Plucker, Acrobat Reader or Adobe Reader, Mobipocket (.prc), Cybook (Bookeen), iRex iLiad (based on eInk), Sony
Reader (based on eInk), eBookwise-1150 (based on former Gemstar technology),
Jinke Hanlin Reader (based on eInk), DNL Reader (http://www.dnaml.com/),
eReader (formerly Palm Digital Media) (.pdb), etc.
Among the first Internet-only publishers of new e-books
were Boson Books, Hard Shell Word Factory and Online Originals, all founded in
the mid-1990s. Online Originals was the first e-book publisher to win
mainstream book reviews (in the London Times) and a nomination for a major
literary prize (the Booker Prize). Some of the free notable e-book repositories that are available over the web are
Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org/).
Facsimile Books & other digitally enhanced Works from: The University of
Georgia Libraries (http://fax.libs.uga.edu/).
Internet Public Library Online Texts Collection
v) Econlib (http://www.econlib.org/)
Higher intellect project
vii) epalm.org (http://www.epalm.org)
The main advantages of e-books
i) Searching: Text can be
searched, except when represented in the form of images.
ii) Take up Little Space: Hundreds (or thousands) may be carried together on one
device, Approximately 500 average e-books can be stored on one CD (equivalent
to several shelves' worth of print books).
iii) Royalties Generation for Authors: E-books can be offered indefinitely, with no “out of print”
date, allowing authors to continue to earn royalties indefinitely, and allowing
readers to find older works by favorite authors.
iv) Zooming Facility: Type size and type face may be adjusted.
v) Backup Copy: A backup can be kept in a remote place, so cannot be lost by
vi) Low Cost: Can be distributed
at low cost since coloring copy also does not cost much.
vii) Speedy Distribution: Distributed instantly, allowing readers to begin reading at
once, without the need to visit a bookstore.
viii) Sharing: Can be simultaneously
shared with many readers.
ix) Environmentally Viable: Economically and environmentally viable by cutting down on
paper and lumber production, economically viable by cutting down on ink
x) Preservation: Does not wear over time, no risk of damage, vandalism, etc.
on the pages.
Some of the disadvantages of
i) Can be
incompatible with the development of new hardware or software.
avoid damage or loss care must be taken in handling and storage of the books.
iii) Continuous reading can be harmful to the eyes.
need some equipment to read the book.
Since the late 1990s, the many newcomers to e-book
publishing have included most major print publishers. At the same time, many
established e-publishers started to offer print versions of some of their
titles. Thus the line between the two is fast blurring.
E-books have their own bestseller lists, including those
compiled by IDPF and Fictionwise. They even have two yearly awards for
excellence in e-books. The longest-standing and most inclusive of these is the
EPPIE award, given by EPIC since 2000. The other is the Dream Realm Award,
first awarded to speculative fiction e-books in 2002.