Tourism Administration and Management: Hospitality Management is the study of the hospitality industry. A degree in the subject may be awarded either by a university college dedicated to the studies of hospitality management or a business school with a relevant department. Degrees in hospitality management may also be referred to as hotel management, hotel and tourism management, or hotel administration. Degrees conferred in this academic field include BA, Bachelor of Business Administration, BS, MS, MBA, and PhD. Hospitality management covers hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, amusement parks, destination marketing organizations, convention centers, and country clubs.
Question Pattern: There will be two question papers - UGC NET Examination in Tourism Administration and Management, Paper II and Paper III. Paper II will have 100 marks in total whereas Paper III will have 150 marks in total. Paper II will cover fifty (50) objective type questions, whereas the Paper III will have seventy five (75) objective type questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. All questions are compulsory in both the papers. The objective type questions will include multiple choices, matching type, true / false and assertion-reasoning type.
Unit – I
Tourist / Visitor / Traveller / Excursionist – definition and differentiation. Tourism recreation and leisure inter-relationship (s). Tourism components, Elements and infrastructure. Types and typologies of Tourism.
Emerging concepts: Eco / rural / agri. / farai / green / wilderness / country side / special interest tourism.
Tourism Trends: Growth and development over the years and factors responsible therein. Changing market-destination patterns, Traffic flows / receipt trends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism.
Linkages and channels of distribution in Tourism:
Tourism Organisation / Institutions: Origin, Organisation and functions of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI, TAAI, IATO and UFTAA.
Unit – II
Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism. Tourism products: typology and unique features.
Natural Tourism Resources in India: Existing use patterns vis – a – vis potential with relation to varied landforms (mountains, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and Islands), Water bodies and biotic wealth (flora – fauna).
Popular tourist destination for land based (soft / hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies, etc.), water based (rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, water skiing, scuba / snuba diving) and air based (para – sailing, para – gliding, ballooning, hand – gliding and microlighting, etc ) tourist activities. Wildlife – Tourism and conservation related issues – Occurrence and distribution of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism in National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves (case of Dachigham Corbett / Dudhwa / Kaziranga / Kanha / Gir / Ranthambor / Mudumalai / Sunderbans / Shivpuri / Manas / Nanda Devi / Valley of flowers reserves). Tourism and nature conservation-Conflicts, Symbiosis and Synergy.
Cultural Tourism Resources in India: Indian Culture and society. Indian History – Ancient, Medieval and Modern.
Traditions, Customs and costumes: Life style and settlement patterns. Food habits and cuisine. Music, Musical instruments and Dance forms; Drawing and painting; Craftsmanship.
Religion / religious observances and important pilgrim destinations.
Architectural Heritage-Forts / palaces / other architectural marvels – Location and unique features.
Unit – III
Accommodation: Concept, Types and Typologies, Linkages and Significance with relation to tourism.
Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry – Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties. Time share establishments.
Hotel and Hoteliering: Origin, Growth and diversification. Classification, registration and gradation of hotels. Organisational structure, Functions and responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel / other catering outlets, viz., bars, restaurants, fast food centres. In flight catering.
Leading multinational hotel chains operating in India. Public sector in hoteliering business – Role, Contribution and Performance.
HRD perspective with special reference to India-Requirements, Training facilities, Constraints and Scope.
Fiscal and non-fiscal incentive available to hotel industry in India. Ethical, Legal and regulatory aspects.www.netugc.com
Unit – IV
Transportation: Dynamically Changing needs and means.
Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socio – economic, Cultural and environmental implications. Tourism transport system.
Airlines Transportation: The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. Organisation of Air Transport Industry in International context. Scheduled and non – scheduled Airlines services; Air taxis. Multinational Air Transport Regulations-Nature, Significance and Limitations. Role of LATA, ICAO and other agencies. Bermuda Convention.
Air Transport Industry in India – DGCA and other key players; Regulatory Framework; Air Corporation Act, Indian carriers-Operations, management and performance. Marketing strategies of Air India.
Significance of Road Transport in Tourism : Growth and Development of road transport system in India; State of existing infrastructure; Public and Private Sector involvement; Role of Regional Transport Authority. Approved Travel Agencies, Tour / Transport Operators, Car hire / Rental companies.
State and inter – state bus and coach network, Insurance provision road taxes and fitness certificate.
Rail Transport Network – Major Railway Systems of World – British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak.
Types of special package offered by Indian Railways to tourists – Indrail pass, Palace on Wheels and Royal Orient.
Reservation procedures. GSAs abroad.
Water Transport System in India – Historical past, Cruise ships, Ferries, Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise. Future prospects.
Unit – V
Travel Agency and Tour Operations Business: Origin, Growth and development; Definition, Differentiation and linkages; Organisation and functions-Travel information counselling, Itinerary preparation, Reservation, Tour costing / pricing. Marketing of tour packages. Income sources.
Airlines Ticketing: Operational perspectives of ticketing – ABC codes, Flight schedules, Flying time and MPM / TPM calculation, TIM (Travel Information Mannual) consultation. Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare, Fare calculation and rounding – up. Currency conversion and payment modes, Issuance of ticket.
Cargo Handling: Baggage allowance, Free access baggage. Weight and piece concept. Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods; Cargo rates and valuation charges, Automation and airport procedures.
Requirements for setting – up travel agency and tour operations business, Approval from organisation and institutions concerned. Incentives available in Indian context. Constraints and limitations.
Unit – VI
Marketing: Core concepts in marketing; Needs, Wants, Demands, Products, markets. Marketing management philosophies-Production, Product, Selling, Marketing and societal perspectives. Economic importance of marketing.
Tourism marketing: Service characteristics of tourism. Unique features of tourist demand and tourism product / Tourism marketing mix.
Analysis and selection of market: Measuring and forecasting tourism demand; Forecasting methods, Managing capacity and demand. Market segmentation and positioning.
Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behaviour. Competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing; Interactive and relationship marketing.
Planning Marketing Programs: Product and product strategies; Product line, Product mix, Branding and packaging. Pricing; considerations, Approaches and strategies. Distribution channels and strategies.
Marketing of Tourism Services: Marketing of Airlines, Hotel, Resort, Travel Agencies and other tourism related services – Challenges and strategies.
Marketing Skills for Tourism: Creativity – Communication – Self – motivation – Team Building – Personality Development.
Unit – VII
Tourism Planning: Origin, Concept and approaches. Levels and types of tourism planning-Sectoral, Spatial, Integrated, Complex, Centralized and Decentralized. Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning, Urban and rural tourism planning.
Tourism planning and policy perspectives; planning at national, state and regional levels. India’s tourism policies.
Tourism Planning Process: Objective setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, Goal setting and Plan formulation, Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study; Plan implementation, Development and monitoring. Tourism master plan.
Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning: Socio – cultural, Economic and physical, Tourism carrying capacity and environmental impact analysis ( EIA ).
Business ethics and laws – their relevance and applicability in Travel and Tourism industry.
Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, Stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health.
Tourist safety and security, Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife.
Unit – VIII
The nature of field techniques; Field techniques and tourism and hotel business; Importance; and Limitations.
Research: Meaning; Types; Trends; and challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business. Guiding principles in selection of research problem.
Research Methodology: Meaning; Procedural Guidelines; and Research design.
Field Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Techniques: Nature, sources of data, Techniques of data collection.
Frequency Distribution: Meanings; Problems and considerations in construction numerical frequency distributions.
Measures of Central tendency and variation.
Correlation and regressions analysis.
Probability and Probability Distributions:www.netugc.com
Probability: Meaning; Definition; and sample points and sample space, Events; Conditional probability; Bayes theorem and probability on large sample space.
Probability Distributions: The binomial model; The poisson model; and Normal distribution.
Sampling and Statistical Testing:
Sampling and Sample Designs: Sampling and reasons for sampling; Theoretical basis of sampling; Basic concepts of sampling and types of sampling (Random and Non-random sampling). Central Limit theorem.
Statistical Testing: Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis, One – tail test and Two – tail test.
Parametric and Non-Parametric Testing:
Testing the Hypothesis: Comparison of two population means; Comparison of two population proportions; and Comparison of two population means and standard deviations.
F – test, Student’s distribution and Chi – square test.
Unit – IX
Management: Concept, Nature, Process and functions. Management levels, Managerial skills and roles. The external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics.
Planning: Nature, Purpose, Types ‘and process. Management by objectives strategies and policies. Decision – making, Process, Tools and techniques. Decision – making models.
Organising: Concept of organising and organisation. Line and staff, Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, Conflict and coordination, Organisational structure and design, Management of change. Innovation and organisation development.
Directing: Communication-Process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication. Motivation – Theories and practices, Leadership – Concept, theories and styles.
Controlling: Process, Methods and techniques. Managing international business.
Information Systems: Automation of Manual System, Data Processing stages. Evolution from EDP to MIS.
MIS: Introduction, Definition, Status, Framework of understanding and designing MIS.
Computer Networking: Application of CRS (Computerized Reservation Systems) in travel trade and hospitality sector.
Unit – X
Financial Management and Planning:
Finance: Meaning; Goals; Functions; Importance; and typologies of Finance – Role of financial management, Organisation goals; Environment; Forecasting and financial planning. Break – even analysis.
Management of Current Assets:
Working Capital Management : Meaning and characteristics of working capital; Financing current assets. Cash management, Receivables management and inventory management.
Management of Fixed Assets; Importance of Capital Budgeting. Analytical Techniques – Non – discounted, Discounted Techniques.
Financial Structures and Management of Earnings:
Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures. Determinants of Financial Structure.
Financial leverage and effects of Financial Leverage on Net Income and Shareholders wealth. Financial leverage and financial planning. Break-even analysis for financial leverage. Dividend Policy, Significance of dividend policy and different types of dividend policies.
TFCI: Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI) – Aims, Objectives, Organisation and Functions.
Accounting: Preparation of Business Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement. Hotel Accounting.