2013 September UGC NET Solved Question Paper in Human Rights and Duties, Paper III

1. All Human Rights are inherent in all human beings because

(A) All Human Rights are provided by the state.

(B) Human Rights are being provided by the United Nations.

(C) Human beings are rational beings.

(D) Human rights are the product of social revolutions.

Answer: (C)

 

2. Which of the following is the exclusive contribution of the French Revolution in the discourse of human rights?

(A) Liberty

(B) Equality

(C) Fraternity

(D) Property

Answer: (C)

 

3. ‘Mandala Theory’ of inter state relations in ancient India was a contribution of

(A) Manu

(B) Brihaspati

(C) Kautilya

(D) Aryabhatt

Answer: (C)

 

4. Right to freedom of speech and expression includes

(A) Right to Contest elections

(B) Right to Judicial remedies

(C) Right against defamation

(D) Freedom of press

Answer: (D)

 

5. The notion of collective rights does not include

(A) Right to Development

(B) Right to Habitation

(C) Right to Self-Determinationwww.netugc.com

(D) Right to Safe Environment

Answer: (B)

 

6. When the Convention on the Rights of the child was adopted by the UN General Assembly?

(A) on 18th March 1992

(B) on 24th January 1982

(C) on 20th November 1989

(D) on 10th December 1999

Answer: (C)

 

7. ‘Convention on the Indigenous and Tribal peoples in independent countries’ was adopted on the initiatives of

(A) World Health Organization

(B) International Labour Organization

(C) United Nations Human Rights Council

(D) Food and Agricultural Organisation

Answer: (B)

 

8. The International Court of Justice is located in

(A) Paris

(B) Geneva

(C) The Hague

(D) Brussels

Answer: (C)

 

9. To solve the problem of Urban poverty in the country, the central government initiated the programme called

(A) Prime Minister’s Shahari Rojgar Yojana

(B) Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana

(C) August Kranti Shahari Rojgar Yojana

(D) President’s Shahari Rojgar Yojana

Answer: (B)

 

10. Who of the following headed the committee to study the problems of Unorganized workers in India?

(A) Nitish Sengupta

(B) Arjun Sengupta

(C) Ravi Shrivastava

(D) Ashok Mitra

Answer: (B)

11. Vishakha vs. State of Rajasthan case dealt with

(A) Prevention of Domestic violence against women

(B) Sexual violence against women at workplace

(C) Ban on the practice of female infanticide

(D) Promotion of educational and employment opportunities for women

Answer: (B)

 

12. ‘Consociational Model’ as a method of protection of the rights of minorities was developed by

(A) Will Kymlica

(B) Hanna Arendt

(C) Danial Flazar

(D) Arendt Lizphart

Answer: (D)

 

13. Which one of the following writs is issued to Courts, corporations or persons directing them to perform their public duty?

(A) Habeas Corpus

(B) Quo Warranto

(C) Mandomus

(D) Prohibition

Answer: (C)

 

14. The maintenance of Internal Security Act was passed in

(A) 1950

(B) 1971

(C) 1963

(D) 1991

Answer: (B)

 

15. Article 340 of the Indian Constitution deals with

(A) Backward Classes Commission

(B) Election Commission

(C) Union Public Service Commission

(D) Finance Commission

Answer: (A)

 

16. Movement for Dalit rights was not championed by

(A) Sri Narayan Guru

(B) Jyotirao Phule

(C) Mahadev Ranade

(D) B.R. Ambedkar

Answer: (C)

 

17. International Humanitarian Law is a

(A) Branch of International law which provides protection to human beings from the consequences of armed conflicts.

(B) Branch of Environmental law which provides protection to Environment.

(C) Branch of international law seeking intervention in the States violating human rights of the people.

(D) Branch of international law providing for humanitarian assistance to the people affected by natural disasters.

Answer: (A)

 

18. Universal Declaration of Human Rights contains

(A) 20 Articles

(B) 22 Articles

(C) 30 Articles

(D) 36 Articles

Answer: (C)

 

19. Cultural and educational rights do not includes the provisions

(A) Minorities have a right to protection.

(B) Minorities can preserve their language script, law and culture.

(C) Minorities cannot set up educational institutions.

(D) Governments will not discriminate while giving grants to minority institutions

Answer: (C)

 

20. Right to Information Act 2005 was the culmination of the sustained efforts of

(A) Baba Amte

(B) Savita Sinha

(C) Aruna Roy

(D) Anna Hazare

Answer: (C)

21. Which schedule of the India Constitution provides protection from judicial review to the law passed by legislatives?

(A) Fifth Schedule

(B) Seventh Schedule

(C) Ninth Schedule

(D) Eleventh Schedule

Answer: (C)

 

22. Amnesty International is based in which of the following countries?

(A) United States

(B) United Kingdom

(C) United Arab Emirates

(D) Canada

Answer: (B)

 

23. The Head Quarters of United Nations is located at

(A) New Delhi

(B) New York

(C) Geneva

(D) Hague

Answer: (B)

 

24. Sacher Committee Report dealt with the issue of

(A) Socio-Economic Development of Muslims

(B) All round development of Minorities

(C) Amelioration in the conditions of working women

(D) Decent and dignified treatment with prisoners of war

Answer: (A)

 

25. The People’s Union for Civil Liberties and Democratic Rights (PUCLDR) was established in

(A) 1956

(B) 1966

(C) 1976

(D) 1986

Answer: (C)

 

26. Which of the following provisions articulate the constitutional vision of Justice in India?

(A) Free and Independent Judiciary

(B) Directive Principles of State policy

(C) Fundamental Duties

(D) Special Status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: (B)

 

27. What is Sustainable Development?

(A) Development for infinity

(B) Development that lasts

(C) Permanent development

(D) Development for at least three generations

Answer: (B)

 

28. Protection of which of the following is a fundamental duty?

(A) Village Panchayat

(B) Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes

(C) Schools

(D) Wild life

Answer: (D)

 

29. Which of the following is a seminal contribution of the Universal declaration of Human Rights?

(A) Making human rights implementable

(B) International standard setting on human rights

(C) Paving way for conversion of human rights into fundamental rights.

(D) Facilitating creation of machinery for ensuring rights to all

Answer: (B)www.netugc.com

 

30. Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly on

(A) 26th June 1940

(B) 28th July 1942

(C) 30th August 1946

(D) 10th December 1948

Answer: (D)

 

31. Which of the following revolutions sought to provide on alternative perspective to the liberal discourse on human rights?

(A) British Glorious Revolution

(B) French Revolution

(C) Russian Revolution

(D) American Revolution

Answer: (C)

 

32. ‘Zakat’ as an important aspect of human duties is enunciated in

(A) Buddhism

(B) Islam

(C) Jainism

(D) Hinduism

Answer: (B)

 

33. Pacific methods of settlement of International disputes do not include

(A) Mediation

(B) Sanction

(C) Good offices

(D) Arbitration

Answer: (B)

 

34. Name the conference in which the importance of regional arrangements in protection and promotion of human rights was emphasised

(A) Tehran conference

(B) Vienna conference

(C) Helsinki conference

(D) Rio conference

Answer: (B)

 

35. Which of the following countries could not join the League of Nations in 1919 despite being the prime force behind its establishment?

(A) Italy

(B) America

(C) Britain

(D) Germany

Answer: (B)

 

From questions nos. 36 to 45, are given two statements: one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled on Reason (R). Examine whether that statements given are correct and related to each other, with the help of the codes attached.

 

36. Assertion (A): No state shall expel, return or extradite a person to another state where there are substantial grounds to believe that he would be in danger of enforced disappearance.

Reason (R): Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

 

37. Assertion (A): Migrant workers crossing borders worldwide are often denied the basic rights to life and are subjected to degrading treatment by border police.

Reason (R): The number of migrant workers around the world has steadily increased over the last two decades.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

38. Assertion (A): Directive principles also have another significant legal consequence within the domestic system. They affect the balancing between rights in a way which would not exist without these directive principles.

Reason (R): Different rights have to be interpreted in light of each other.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

 

39. Assertion (A): CEDAW defines discrimination against women as any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of human rights by women in political, social, economic, cultural, civil or any other field.

Reason (R): Discrimination against women is systematic and rooted in the institutions, attitudes and mindset of the society.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

 

40. Assertion (A): Within all traditions there have been a variety of thinkers who have propounded ideas of individual or collective liberties as well as those that have emphasised notions of discipline, obedience and duty over concepts of rights and freedoms.

Reason (R): All Human Rights are universal and interdependent.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

41. Assertion (A): In those states in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion or to use their own language.

Reason (R): Minorities, everywhere face discrimination.

Code:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

42. Assertion (A): On a global scale, women cultivate more than half of all the food that is grown. In Sub-Saharan African and the Caribbean, they produce upto 80 percent of food stuffs. In Asia, they account for around 50 percent of food production.

Reason (R): Women by nature are good only in agricultural work.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

43. Assertion (A): The prohibition to torture is so absolute that if an individual is expected to be put to torture in a country upon reaching there, such an individual cannot be deported, extradited or otherwise returned to that country.

Reason (R): In every civilised society torture is denounced as barbaric, cruel and against human dignity.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

44. Assertion (A): Provisions of the Directive principles exhort the state that the operation of the economic system and the ownership and control of the material resources of the country subserve the common good.

Reason (R): Preamble of the constitution defines India as a Socialist state.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

45. Assertion (A): Human Rights are largely vertical in nature and are enforceable against the state and thus seek to regulate the relationship between the citizens and the State.

Reason (R): State has come into existence as a revolt of the agreement or consent of citizens and derives its legitimacy from such agreement.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

 

46. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                List – II

a. The National Commission for Minorities Act                                 i. 1961

b. The Commission on Sati (prevention) Act                                      ii. 1986

c. The Dowry Prohibition Act                                                                        iii. 1992

d. The Juvenile Justice Act                                                                 iv. 1987

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       iii         iv         i           ii

(B)       i           ii          iv         iii

(C)       ii          iii         i           iv

(D)       iv         i           ii          iii

Answer: (A)

 

47. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                    List – II

a. Minimises the chances of Revolution                                 i. Multi-member constituencies

b. Adequate representation to Minorities                               ii. Democracy

c. Government by the few                                                      iii. Aristocracy

d. Strong government                                                             iv. Dictatorship

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       ii          i           iii         iv

(B)       i           iii         iv         ii

(C)       iv         ii          i           iii

(D)       iii         iv         ii          i

Answer: (A)

 

48. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                        List – II

a. Negative Liberalism                                                i. Thomas Hill Green

b. Positive Liberalism                                                  ii. Norman Angell

c. Modern individualism                                             iii. Herbert Spencer

d. Idealism                                                                  iv. John Start Mill

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       ii          iii         i           iv

(B)       i           ii          iv         iii

(C)       ii          iv         iii         i

(D)       iii         iv         ii          i

Answer: (D)

 

49. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I (Rights)                                                                                  List – II (Directive Principles of State Policy)

a. Right to adequate means of livelihood                                           i. Article 39

b. Right to work                                                                                  ii. Article 41

c. Right of workers to participate in management of industries         iii. Article 43

d. Right of children to free and compulsory education                      iv. Article 45

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           ii          iii         iv

(B)       ii          iii         iv         i

(C)       iv         ii          iii         i

(D)       iii         i           ii          iv

Answer: (A)

 

50. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                    List – II

a. The Environment Protection Act                                        i. 1993

b. Protection of Human Right Act                                         ii. 1955

c. Prevention of Terrorism Act                                               iii. 1986

d. Protection of Civil Rights Act                                            iv. 2002

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           ii          iv         iii

(B)       ii          iv         i           iii

(C)       iii         i           iv         ii

(D)       i           iii         ii          iv

Answer: (C)

 

51. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                                        List – II

a. Declaration on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination                    i. 1992

b. Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against women                         ii. 1959

c. Declaration on the protection of All persons from Enforced Disappearance         iii. 1967

d. Declaration of the Rights of the child                                                                    iv. 1963

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       iv         iii         i           ii

(B)       iii         i           ii          iv

(C)       i           ii          iii         iv

(D)       ii          iii         iv         i

Answer: (A)

 

52. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                    List – II

a. Amendment of Constitution                                               i. Article-368

b. Universal Adult Suffrage                                                   ii. Article-326

c. Ministerial responsibility                                                     iii. Article-75

d. Fundamental Duties                                                           iv. Article-51A

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       iii         ii          i           iv

(B)       ii          i           iii         iv

(C)       i           ii          iii         iv

(D)       iv         iii         ii          i

Answer: (C)

 

53. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                            List – II

a. U.N. Charter                                                                                               i. 1948

b. Universal Declaration of Human Rights                                                     ii. 1945

c. Convention on the Rights of the Child                                                       iii. 1966

d. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights             iv. 1989

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           iii         ii          iv

(B)       ii          i           iv         iii

(C)       ii          iv         iii         i

(D)       iv         ii          i           iii

Answer: (B)

 

54. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                        List – II

a. Petition of Rights                                                    i. 1215

b. Magna Carta                                                           ii. 1628

c. Ministers of the Crown Act                                                iii. 1689

d. Bill of Rights                                                          iv. 1937

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           iv         iii         ii

(B)       ii          i           iv         iii

(C)       i           ii          iii         iv

(D)       iii         iv         ii          i

Answer: (B)

 

55. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                    List – II

a. International Court of Justice                                             i. Geneva

b. International Committee of the Red Cross                         ii. New York

c. Economic and Social Council (UN)                                    iii. Strasbourg

d. European Court of Human Rights                                      iv. The Hague

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       iv         i           ii          iii

(B)       i           ii          iii         iv

(C)       iv         ii          i           iii

(D)       iii         i           ii          iv

Answer: (A)

 

56. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                List – II

a. International convention on civil and political rights                      i. 1989

b. International convention on the rights of the child                                    ii. 2002

c. Prevention of Terrorism Act                                                           iii. 1960

d. Geneva Conventions Act                                                               iv. 1966

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           iii         iv         ii

(B)       ii          iii         i           iv

(C)       iv         i           ii          iii

(D)       i           ii          iii         iv

Answer: (C)

 

57. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I (Theories of Democracy)                                                        List – II (Champions)

a. Classical Theory                                                                              i. Giovanni Sartori

b. Neo Liberal Theory                                                                         ii. Abraham Lincoln

c. Elite Theory                                                                                     iii. Robert A. Dahl

d. Pluralist Theory                                                                               iv. C. Wright Mills

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       ii          i           iv         iii

(B)       i           iii         ii          iv

(C)       iii         iv         i           ii

(D)       iv         iii         ii          i

Answer: (A)

 

58. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I (Authors)                                                        List – II (Books)

a. J.S. Mill                                                                   i. Principles of Political Obligation    

b. T.H. Green                                                              ii. Theory of Justice

c. H.J. Laski                                                                iii. Grammar of Politics

d. John Rawls                                                             iv. On Liberty

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       iv         i           iii         ii

(B)       i           ii          iv         iii

(C)       ii          iii         i           iv

(D)       i           ii          iii         iv

Answer: (A)

 

59. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I (Socialism)                                                                  List – II (Propounder)

a. Utopian socialism                                                                i. Karl Marx

b. Fabian Socialism                                                                 ii. G.D.H. Cole

c. Scientific socialism                                                              iii. Sydny Webb

d. Guild socialism                                                                   iv. Saint Simon

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           ii          iii         iv

(B)       iv         iii         i           ii

(C)       i           iii         ii          iv

(D)       iii         i           iv         ii

Answer: (B)

 

60. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                        List – II

a. Sanitation, fire fighting, public safety                    i. Cultural services

b. Art galleries, museums, public parks, zoos             ii. Welfare services

c. Roads and bridges public utility services                iii. Physical services

d. Education, Hospitals, Libraries                              iv. Protective services

Codes:

a          b          c          d

(A)       i           ii          iv         iii

(B)       iv         i          ii          iii

(C)       i           ii          iii         iv

(D)       ii          iii         iv         i

Answer: (B)

 

61. Arrange the following preventive detention laws in order of their adoption by the parliament:

i. TADA

ii. COFEPOSA

iii. MISA

iv. POTA

Codes:

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iii i ii ivwww.netugc.com

(D) iv iii i ii

Answer: (B)

 

62. Arrange in chronological order the occurrence of the following events in the more towards protection and promotion of Child Rights

i. Adoption of optional protocol on the involvement of children in Armed conflict.

ii. World Summit for children

iii. Establishment of Commission for protection of Child Rights

iv. UN convention on Rights of the child.

Codes:

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) iii i iv ii

(C) iv ii i iii

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (C)

 

63. Arrange in proper sequence the following fundamental rights as given under various provisions of the constitution of India:

i. Right to Life

ii. Right to Equality

iii. Right to Constitutional Remedies

iv. Right to Freedom

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) ii iv i iii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (B)

 

64. Arrange the following thinkers in order of their era:

i. John Locke

ii. Aristotle

iii. Karl Marx

iv. Francis Fukuyama

Codes:

(A) iv i ii iii

(B) iii ii iv i

(C) ii i iii iv

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (C)

 

65. Arrange in sequence the adoption of the following declarations:

i. United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development.

ii. United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights

iii. United Nations Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace

iv. United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for victims of crime and abuse of power

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii i iv ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (D)

 

66. Arrange the following in chronological order:

i. Five Fables about Human Rights

ii. Fourteen points of Woodrow Wilson

iii. The four freedoms of F.D. Roosevelt

iv. Panchsheel

Codes:

(A) ii iii iv i

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv i ii iii

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (A)

 

67. Arrange in sequence the passage of the following enactments by the Indian Parliament:

i. Right to Information Act

ii. Right to Education Act

iii. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

iv. Prevention of Corruption Act

Codes:

(A) iv i iii ii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) ii iii iv i

(D) iii iv i ii

Answer: (A)

 

68. Arrange in Chronological order the various reforms passed by the British Parliament for India

i. Government of India Act, 1935

ii. Morley-Minto Reforms

iii. Regulating Act

iv. Montague-Chelmsford Reforms

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii ii iv i

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

 

69. Arrange the following classics on Human Rights in chronological order of their publications:

i. The Declaration of the Rights of Women

ii. The Rights of Man

iii. On Laws of War and Peace

iv. The National Question and Autonomy

Codes:

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) iii i ii iv

(C) ii iv i iii

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

 

70. Arrange the following movements in chronological order:

i. Civil Disobedience Movement

ii. Bhoodan Movement

iii. Khilafat Movement

iv. Quit India Movement

Codes:

(A) iii i iv ii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii iv i iii

Answer: (A)

 

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage. (Question Nos. 71 to 75)

The Indian scholar Vandana Shiva applies a socialist approach to women’s rights in the Third World, condemning the ill effects of a neoliberal approach to economic development on both women and the environment in the Third World. In Staying Alive: Development, Ecology and Women (1989), she maintains that development projects represent the continuation of the process of colonialization. Rejecting the premise – embraced by architects of the United Nations Decade for Women – that women’s economic status would improve thanks to expanding development Shiva argues that the Western understanding of progress was at the root of women’s increasing underdevelopment. She details how development projects have displaced women, in particular, from their sources of economic subsistence. Deploring the way in which women’s close association with nature is seen as passive and unproductive, she calls for the recovery of the feminine principle to challenge the legitimacy of patriarchal capital accumulation and its destructive ecological effects.

From a different perspective, the American pragmatist philosopher Richard Rorty considers in “Human Rights, Rationality and Sentimentality” (1993), Western rationalist and foundationalist positions of universal rights (as defended by Plato, Kant and others) as outmoded. Those views, in Rorty’s opinion are, despite their theoretical and universalist claims, de facto exclusive; for only rational individuals are considered human beings. According to this perspective, Rorty claims, Muslims and women may be easily excluded from the rationalist equation of rights. He thus encourages those who oppose oppression to concentrate their energies on manipulating sentiments. For our best hope is one sentimental education, rather than on the command of reason. This would favour the possibility of “powerful people gradually ceasing to oppress others, or ceasing to countenance the oppression of others, out of mere niceness, rather than out of obedience to the moral law.”

Unlike Rorty, the American scholars Rhoda E. Howard and Jack Donnelly advocate, in “Liberalism and Human Rights: A Necessary Connection” (1996), a universal liberal and “egalitarian” position on rights. They maintain that internationally recognized liberal human rights, as laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Human Rights Covenants, are the only legitimate human rights standards. They defend a liberal view of Individual rights, against both the libertarian strand of liberalism, and conservative “communitarian” rights, by arguing, for example, that individuals’ rights to property are constrained by individuals rights to social justice. “When the full range of internationally recognized human rights is protected,” they write, “when individuals are treated with equal concern, communities can and do thrive.”

 

71. According to Vandana Shiva by expanding development

(A) Women’s economic status would improve

(B) women’s economic status will remain same

(C) women’s economic status will deteriorate

(D) none of the above

Answer: (C)

 

72. Patriarchal capital accumulation vision needs to be challenged by

(A) strengthening of Human Rights Discourse.

(B) recovery of the feminine principle.

(C) expanding development.

(D) improving economic status of women.

Answer: (B)

 

73. Richard Rorty is of the view that

(A) human rights are universal.

(B) western rationalist position on human rights is relevant.

(C) present Human Rights system favours only rational individuals.

(D) women don’t remain excluded from availability of rights.

Answer: (C)

 

74. The best way to reduce oppression is

(A) strict enforcement of laws.

(B) better implementation of human rights.

(C) strengthening of the moral law.

(D) sensitisation.

Answer: (D)

 

75. For the development of communities the better way is

(A) by protection of individual rights.

(B) by restricting right to property.

(C) by respecting communitarian rights.

(D) by rejecting liberal vision of Human Rights.

Answer: (A)

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