2013 June UGC NET Solved Question Paper in Human Rights and Duties, Paper III

1. The first International Conference on Human Rights is also known as:

(A) Vienna Conference

(B) Tehran Conference

(C) Helsinki Conference

(D) Bandung Conference

Answer: (B)

 

2. The International Human Rights Day is observed on

(A) 25th January

(B) 1st May

(C) 10th December

(D) 24th October

Answer: (C)

 

3. Which of the following is not a primary demand of Maoists in India?

(A) Land Rights to Landless Peasants

(B) Forest Rights to Forest Dwellers

(C) Decent Wages to the farm workers

(D) Household Rights to Home maker women

Answer: (D)

 

4. The specialized agencies of the United Nations work under the overall supervision of

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Economic and Social council

(D) The Secretary-General

Answer: (C)

 

5. The Earth Summit was held in

(A) Germany

(B) Copenhagen

(C) Rio De Janeiro

(D) Beijing

Answer: (C)

 

6. Which of the following is not a legacy of the national movement in India?

(A) Non-violent struggle

(B) Two-Nation Theory

(C) Communal Harmony

(D) Unity and Fraternity of Afra- Asian Nations

Answer: (B)

 

7. Who among the following is a Marxist theoretician?

(A) A.V. Dicey

(B) Rosa Luxemburg

(C) Thomas Paine

(D) Hugo Grotius

Answer: (B)

 

8. Who is the current Chairman of National Human Rights Commission?

(A) Justice J.S. Verma

(B) Justice A.S. Anand

(C) Justice K.G. Balakrishnan

(D) Justice Ranganath Mishra

Answer: (C)

 

9. UN High Commission for refugees (UNHCR) was established in

(A) 1947 www.netugc.com

(B) 1951

(C) 1950

(D) 1956

Answer: (C)

 

10. Rule of Law as the foundational doctrine of modern Constitutional Governments was contribution of

(A) J.S. Mill

(B) A.V. Dicey

(C) Ernest Barker

(D) Walter Bagehot

Answer: (B)

11. The spread of which of the movements is described with the euphemism ‘Tirupati to Pashupati’?

(A) Maoist Movement

(B) Hindu Revivalist Movement

(C) Telangana Movement

(D) Women’s Rights Movement

Answer: (A)

 

12. Which of the following statesman gave his famous ‘Fourteen Points’ to argue for the rights of the colonies?

(A) Winston Churchill

(B) Woodrow Wilson

(C) Ramsay MacDonald

(D) Franklin D. Roosevelt

Answer: (B)

 

13. A person can be arrested under the Preventive Detention Act for a duration of

(A) one year

(B) 24 hours

(C) three months

(D) six months

Answer: (C)

 

14. Violence as a plausible method of bringing out social change in a country is not the idea of

(A) Marx

(B) Gandhi

(C) Mao

(D) Lenin

Answer: (B)

 

15. The European Court of Human Rights came into being in

(A) 2007

(B) 2008

(C) 2009

(D) 2010

Answer: (B)

 

16. Name the thinker whose ‘Prison Diaries’ became classic in the Marxist discourse

(A) Karl Marx

(B) Mao Tse Tung

(C) Antonio Gramsci

(D) Ho Chi Minh

Answer: (C)

 

17. Name the author who wrote the book ‘Human Rights in a Post-Human World’

(A) V.N. Shukla

(B) M.P. Singh

(C) Upendra Baxi

(D) Amartya Sen

Answer: (C)

 

18. The idea of three generations of human rights is first of all given by

(A) Hugo Grotius

(B) Thomas Paine

(C) Karel Vasak

(D) Lucian Pye

Answer: (C)

 

19. As India’s original contribution to the art of constitution making, Granville Austin points out

(A) The Principle of Pith and Substance

(B) The Principle of Accommodation

(C) The Principle of Balance of Power

(D) The Principle of Checks and Balances

Answer: (B)

 

20. Who of the following was the leader of Naxalbari Movement in west Bengal?

(A) Jyoti Basu

(B) Charu Mazumdar

(C) Amiya Kumar Bagchi

(D) Buddhadeb Bhattacharya

Answer: (B)

21. Which of the following is not a valid categorization of minorities in India?

(A) Religion-based minorities

(B) Caste-based minorities

(C) Language-based minorities

(D) Ethnicity-based minorities

Answer: (B)

 

22. Who of the following is the pioneer of Critical Theory?

(A) Ted Gurr

(B) Shyla Ben Habib

(C) Jurgen Hebarmas

(D) Kenneth Arrow

Answer: (C)

 

23. ‘Justice as Fairness’ is the idea of

(A) Plato

(B) Amartya Sen

(C) John Rawls

(D) John Locke

Answer: (C)

 

24. Which of the following was not part of the Arab Spring that swept Arab countries recently?

(A) Egypt

(B) Tunisia

(C) Libya

(D) Oman

Answer: (D)

 

25. The 24th Amendment in the Constitution of India was challenged in which one of the following:

(A) Kesavanand Case

(B) Gopalan Case

(C) Minerva Mill Case

(D) Shankari Prasad Case

Answer: (A)

 

26. Which Article of the Indian Constitution stipulates that “India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States”?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 3

(C) Article 5

(D) Article 7

Answer: (A)

 

27. The Committee that suggested far-reaching changes in the Constitution of India during the period of Emergency was headed by

(A) Y.V. Chavan

(B) B.D. Jatti

(C) Swarn Singhwww.netugc.com

(D) K.C. Pant

Answer: (C)

 

28. Which of the following is not human rights organisation based in India?

(A) People’s Union for Civil Rights

(B) Common Cause

(C) People’s Union for Democratic Rights

(D) Green Peace

Answer: (D)

 

29. The activist sitting on prolonged hunger strike against the imposition of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in a few States of India is

(A) S. Sriramulu

(B) Iron Sharmila

(C) Mahbooba Mufti

(D) Anna Hazare

Answer: (B)

 

30. Ecological movement in India is not championed by

(A) Sundarlal Bahuguna

(B) Vandana Shiva

(C) Nikhil Dey

(D) Chandi Prasad Bhatt

Answer: (C)

 

31. Which of the following is the sub discipline of Economics for contribution towards that Amartya Sen was awarded the Noble Prize?

(A) Econometrics

(B) Macroeconomics

(C) Welfare Economics

(D) Development Economics

Answer: (C)

 

32. Who authored ‘The Idea of India’?

(A) Dipesh Chakraborty

(B) Sunil Khilnani

(C) Partha Chatterjee

(D) Ranjit Guha

Answer: (B)

 

33. A comprehensive commentary on the constitutional law of India was not provided by

(A) H.M. Seervai

(B) D.D. Basu

(C) Subhash C. Kashyap

(D) Soli J. Sorabjee

Answer: (D)

 

34. ‘Millennium Development Goals’ are set by

(A) Asian Development Bank

(B) United Nations

(C) League of Nations

(D) International Monetary Fund

Answer: (B)

 

35. The World Assembly on Ageing was held in

(A) 1982

(B) 1992

(C) 2002

(D) 2012

Answer: (A)

 

36. Assertion (A): An NGO to remain credible and maintain its reputation must be extremely careful and guard itself against charges with regard to its objectives, financial sources and methods of work.

Reason (R): Human Rights institutions do not accept information collected by NGOs.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

37. Assertion (A): There is a close relationship between the two covenants which have enumerated various civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. It is evident from the fact that Preamble and Articles 1, 2, 3 and 5 are virtually identical in both the covenants.

Reason (R): Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms are indivisible.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) iscorrect.

Answer: (A)

 

38. Assertion (A): Human rights law obliges a state to refrain from causing harm to its own nationals or other persons within its territorial jurisdiction. State is not free to treat its nationals as it pleases despite the fact it is sovereign.

Reason (R): International Law does not recognize sovereignty.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

39. Assertion (A): Buddhism propounds that Nirvana (Liberation from the Cycle of life and death) can be attained in this very world and it can be attained by any one should he or she follow the right conduct.

Reason (R): Buddhism forms an important part of Brahmin traditions that stood up for the downtrodden in the society.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (Wrong question)

 

40. Assertion (A): Indigenous peoples claim right to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping with their own needs and aspirations.

Reason (R): Indigenous people have a historical continuity with reinvasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

 

41. Assertion (A): Persons belonging to minorities have right to participate effectively in decisions on the national and where appropriate, regional level concerned the minority to which they belong or the regions in which they live, in a manner not incompatible with national legislation.

Reason (R): Persons belonging to minority communities are special citizens.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) isincorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

42. Assertion (A): As per Indian law, nothing is an offence if committed by a child below 7 years of age. If a child under 18 years of age commits an offence then child has to be treated under the Juvenile Justice.

Reason (R): The Government and society have an obligation to ensure survival and development of the child.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

43. Assertion (A): States are required to refrain from interfering with free and fair elections, by privileging certain political parties in their electoral campaigns, by committing electoral fraud or by arbitrarily excluding voters or political parties.

Reason (R): Strict observance of a secret ballot is the best guarantee of ensuring free elections.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

44. Assertion (A): It is now an accepted rate of judicial construction that regard must be had to international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is no inconsistency between them and is a void in domestic law.

Reason (R): States are duty bond to ratify Human Rights treaties.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

45. Assertion (A): All systems of law rely in part on mechanisms to assist in the implementation and enforcement of the rules which make up the particular body of law.

Reason (R): Many people obey laws because they believe them to be legitimate, not because they fear punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) iscorrect.

Answer: (B)

 

46. Assertion (A): Women in India today enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

 

47. Assertion (A): Minorities in India feel insecure and alienated.

Reason (R): Minorities are ethnocentric.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (C)

 

48. Assertion (A): Modern Science and Technology provides both opportunities and challenges to the discourse on human rights.

Reason (R): Euthanasia is the method of securing right to death to certain people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

 

49. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                List – II

(Theorists)                               (Ideas)

a. John Stuart Mill                   i. Alienation

b. Karl Marx                            ii. Positive and negative liberty

c. I. Berlin                               iii. Equality for women

d. John Locke                                     iv. Toleration

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii i ii iv

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) ii iv i iii

(D) iv iii ii i

Answer: (A)

 

50. Match List – I with List – II andselect the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                            List – II

(Forms of Government)                      (Essential features)

a. Parliamentary Government             i. Centralization of powers

b. Presidential Government                ii. Division of powers

c. Federal System                                iii. Separation of powers

d. Unitary System                               iv. Collective Responsibility

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) iii ii iv i

(C) i ii iii iv

(D) ii iv i iii

Answer: (A)

 

51. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                            List – II

(Fundamental Rights)                                                                                     (Article No.)

a. Right to Constitutional Remedy                                                     i. 29

b. Protection of interest of Minorities                                                 ii. 17

c. Abolition of Untouchability                                                            iii. 16

d. Equality of opportunities in the matters of public employment     iv. 32

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iv iii

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iv i ii iii

Answer: (D)

 

52. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                        List – II

a. Article 155              i. All India Services

b. Article 200              ii. President’s power to appoint governor

c. Article 213              iii. Instructions of President required for the Governor to make ordinance relating to certain matters

d. Article 312              iv. President’s Veto Power in respect of certain state bills reserved by the Governor

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) iv iii ii i

Answer: (Wrong question)

 

53. Match List – I with List – II andselect the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                                                    List – II

a. Universal Declaration of Human Rights                                                                             i. 1965

b. International Covenant as economic Social and Cultural Rights                                       ii. 1975

c. Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons                                                                  iii. 1966

d. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination        iv. 1948

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) ii i iii iv

Answer: (A)

 

54. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                            List – II

a. UN Charter                                                             i. 1955

b. The Protection of Human Rights Act         ii. 1945

c. Protection of Civil Rights Act                    iii. 1993

d. The Juvenile Justice Act                             iv. 1986

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) iiii i iv

(C) iv i iii ii

(D) iii iv ii i

Answer: (Wrong question)

 

55. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                            List – II

a. Law of Free Monarchies                             i. MacIver

b. The Modern State                                       ii. Henry Maine

c. Ancient Law                                               iii. John Locke

d. Two Treaties on Civil Government            iv. James – I

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) i iii iv ii

(B) ii iv i iii

(C) iv i ii iii

(D) i ii iv iii

Answer: (C)

 

56. Match List – I with List – II andselect the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                                                                List – II

a. Liberty and Equality are incompatible                                            i. Acton

b. Liberty and Equality are compatible                                               ii. Maitland

c. Negative Liberty                                                                             iii. Isaiah Berlin

d. ‘Capitalism is a necessary condition for political freedom’            iv. Milton Friedman

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii iii iv i

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv i ii iii

(D) iii ii i iv

Answer: (B)

 

57. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                            List – II

Constitution of India Article              Right

a. Article 5                                          i. Fundamental Rights

b. Article 12                                        ii. Equality before Law

c. Article 14                                        iii. Citizenship

d. Article 19                                        iv. Right to Freedom

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii i ii iv

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) ii iv i iii

(D) iv iii ii i

Answer: (A)

 

58. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                            List – II

a. Soul of the Constitution                              i. Preamble

b. Sign post of the Constitution                      ii. Directive Principles

c. President’s power to appoint governor       iii. Article 370

d. Special status to Jammu & Kashmir           iv. Article 155

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii iii i iv

(C) iv ii i iii

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (A)

 

59. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                List – II

Writs                                       Purpose

a. HabeasCorpus                     i. Issued by asuperior courtcommanding aperson or publicauthority to do or not to do something in the nature of public duty

b. Prohibition                          ii. Issued to prevent a person from holding an office to which he is not entitled.

c. Quo Warranto                     iii. Issued in case of an illegal detention of a person

d. Mandamus                          iv. Issues to lower court to stop proceedings in a particular case

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv ii i

(B) i ii iv iii

(C) ii iii i iv

(D) iv iii ii i

Answer: (A)

 

60. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List – I                                                List – II

a. Banking                                           i. State List

b. Local Government                          ii. Concurrent List

c. Education                                        iii. Union List

d. Residuary powers to the States      iv. U.S.A. and Canada

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii i ii iv

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv i iii ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (A)

 

61. Arrange in sequence of their placement in the Indian Constitution:

i. Special Rights of Tribal Communities

ii. Fundamental Duties

iii. Directive Principles of State Policy

iv. Fundamental Rights

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iv i iii ii

(D) iii ii i iv

Answer: (B)

 

62. Arrange in chronological order the establishment of following committees on Panchayati Raj in India

i. Ashok Mehta Committee

ii. Balwant Raimehta Committee

iii. L.M. Singhai Committee

iv. G.V.K. Rao Committee

Codes:

(A) i iii iv ii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) ii i iii iv

(D) iv iii ii iwww.netugc.com

Answer: (B)

 

63. Arrange the following International Criminal Courts and Tribunals in chronological order:

i. The special Court for Sierra Leone

ii. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

iii. International Criminal court.

iv. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii i ii iv

(D) ii iv i iii

Answer: (D)

 

64. Arrange the following human rights pioneers in India in chronological order:

i. K. Balagopal

ii. Raja Ram Mohan Roy

iii. B.R. Ambedkar

iv. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Codes:

(A) iv ii iii i

(B) i ii iv iii

(C) ii iv iii i

(D) iii i ii iv

Answer: (C)

 

65. Arrange in chronological order the following environmental movements:

i. Chipko Movement

ii. Silent Valley Movement

iii. Narmada Bachao Andolan

iv. Yamuna Jiye Abhiyan

Codes:

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) i iv iii ii

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (D)

 

66. Arrange in sequence in which the following United Nations Organs are given in the Charter:

i. The International Court of Justice

ii. The General Assembly

iii. The Secretariat

iv. The Security Council

Codes:

(A) iv iii ii i

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) ii iv i iii

(D) iii ii iv i

Answer: (C)

 

67. Arrange the following events in which time they happened using the codes given below:

i. Swadeshi Movement

ii. Non-Cooperative Movement

iii. Kheda Movement

iv. Champaran Satyagraha

Codes:

(A) i iv iii ii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) iv ii i iii

Answer: (A)

 

68. Arrange in chronological order the following:

i. The Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes.

ii. The Geneva Convention on the Amelioration of the Conditions of the Wounded in Armies in the field.

iii. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Convention relating to Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts.

iv. The Geneva Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War.

Codes:

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) iii iv i ii

Answer: (A)

 

69. Arrange in hierarchical order the following judicial offices in India:

i. High Court

ii. Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate’s Court

iii. Sessions Court

iv. Court of Judicial Magistrate of First Class

Codes:

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv ii iii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) ii iii i iv

Answer: (Wrong question)

 

70. Arrange in right sequence the following important events regarding sustainable development:

i. United Nations Commission on Environment and Development

ii. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

iii. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

iv. United Nations Conference on Human Environment

Codes:

(A) iv i ii iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) iii iv i ii

Answer: (A)

 

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage. (Question Nos. 71 – 75):

The right to vote and to be elected is a good example to illustrate the interdependence of States’ obligations to respect, to ensure and to protect. First of all, States are under an obligation to ensure that elections are held at periodic intervals (for example, every four to six years), at least for parliaments and other bodies exercising legislative functions. The duty to ensure the right to vote includes the obligation to provide, by means of positive state action, for free, fair and secret elections on the basis of universal and equal suffrage. This also means the duty to guarantee that all persons who are entitled to vote, including the elderly, the sick, the disabled and persons deprived of their liberty actually have an opportunity to exercise this most important political right.

Secondly, States shall refrain from interfering with free and fair elections by, for example, privileging certain political parties in their electoral campaigns (through means of party financing or granting more time at public broadcasting stations), by committing electoral fraud or by arbitrarily excluding voters or political parties. Only reasonable and non-discriminatory restrictions are permissible, such as the exclusion of aliens (political rights are in principle still citizens’ rights), minors, the mentally ill or persons convicted in court for certain crimes. Only in exceptional cases may certain (for example, fascist or racist) parties be prohibited from participating in elections. Exclusion is not permitted with regard to illiterate persons, civil servants, pre-trial detainees; nor is exclusion on any discriminatory grounds such as sex, race, religion, property, social origin or political opinion permitted. In a number of decisions, the Human Rights Committee found the statutory deprivation of political rights for Marxists by the former military regime in Uruguay a violation of Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In a case against the Netherlands, certain restrictions of the right of civil servants to be elected to municipal councils were, however, deemed reasonable.

Thirdly, States have a positive duty to protect voters from undue pressure by private individuals or groups. In particular, the principle of free and fair elections means that States must guarantee in times of election campaigns that voters and candidates are not intimidated, harassed and threatened by powerful parties and pressure groups. During elections, the strict observance of a secret ballot is the best guarantee of ensuring free elections.

 

71. Right to Vote places on the State

(A) No obligation

(B) Negative obligation

(C) Positive obligation

(D) International Commitment

Answer: (C)

 

72. State Funding of some political parties in elections amount to

(A) Making elections less expensive

(B) Interfering with free and fair elections

(C) Helping smaller parties to contest elections

(D) None of the above

Answer: (B)

 

73. Right to Vote is available to

(A) Only citizens of the country

(B) All residents of the country

(C) Only members of political parties

(D) Only to believers in democracy

Answer: (A)

 

74. Restrictions on Bureaucrats to contest elections are

(A) Violation of Political Rights

(B) Considered Reasonable

(C) Justifiable only in Socialist States

(D) None of the above

Answer: (B)

 

75. States obligation towards implementation of Human Rights include

(A) Respect Human Rights

(B) Protect Human Rights

(C) Not violate Human Rights

(D) All of above

Answer: (D)

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