Standard Bibliographic Format

Standard Bibliographic Format: Standardization is the process of formulating and applying rules for an orderly approach to a specific activity for the benefit of all taking due account of the functional conditions and safety requirements.

The needs for standardization of bibliographic description are as follows

i) To bring uniformity and order in the description of library materials of different kinds;

ii) For handling of data in an automated computer aided machine;

iii) To produce a centralized database;

iv) To exchange bibliographic information between and among different countries;

v) To overcome the problem of language barrier;

vi) To economise on time, space, effort, material, manpower and money.

Let Us Sum Up: The different bibliographic standards are helpful in maintaining uniformity in the data so that exchange and compilation can be done easily. The ISBD (G) serves as a single framework for the description of all types of publications in all types of media. Later on, IFLA brought out different ISBDs on the basis of ISBD (G). The ISBD (G) is incorporated into AACR II as a general framework for bibliographic description.

MARC format has become a generic term to all MARC formats including UKMARC, CANMARC, InterMARC and is used for the identification, arrangement of bibliographical data for handling by computer. The USMARC format became the U. S. National Standard in 1971 (ANSI Z39.2) and an International Standard in 1973 (ISO 2709). To solve the problem of incompatible nature among different countries, IFLA launched a programme known as UNIMARC. UNIMARC followed the ISO communication format ISO-2709 (1981), but it failed. The UNESCO also came up with CCF, which is the implementation of ISO-2709 to solve the problem of incompatibility. Several countries have adopted this standard for exchange and creation of bibliographic record at national level. The MARC 21 is a new name of harmonization of CANMARC and USMARC in a single edition. It uses the standard AACR II, LCSH, DDC, ISO 2709 and ANSI/NISO Z39.2. Till now, MARC 21 remains the standard one which is widely accepted in different library softwares and also in different countries.