Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one's own original work. The intentional plagiarism refers to using someone’s ideas or results without citing the source, using someone’s ideas or results without using quotation marks, even though he/she cites the source and using someone’s ideas or results without crediting the source. The accidental plagiarism is when the author does not know what is considered as plagiarism and he/she can’t think of a better way to say it and so copy sentences, phrases, or even sentence structure from the original without using quotation marks and in the event while preparing the notes he/she does not put exact wording in quotation marks and so he/she plagiarizes without realizing it.
a) Why Plagiarism should be Avoided: Plagiarism intentional or accidental is considered academic misconduct. Plagiarized work can result in a failing course grade, expulsion, rejection of a paper submitted for publication, denial of an advanced degree, or loss of job. Every year – thousands of research scholars and students are expelled for committing plagiarism.
b) How Plagiarism can be avoided: The plagiarism in best can be avoided by adopting the following measure-
i) As you take notes, put quotation marks around any wording that you copy directly from the source so that later you can put it into your own words and won’t accidentally plagiarize.
ii) If you copy something word for word, put quotation marks around it and cite it, if you cannot remember the source, you don’t have the right to use that information.
iii) If you paraphrase by putting ideas into your own words, cite the source of the ideas.
iv) Put the complete bibliographic reference for all citations in the Bibliography (or Works Cited).
v) Use plagiarism detection software on your own text and make necessary correction.
vi) Use some content composing software like Content Composer (http://www.contentcomposer.com/) that will help in creating plagiarize-proof content.
c) How to Detect Plagiarism: Nowadays there are a number of software packages available in the market to detect plagiarism. Some of them are mentioned below-
i) CopyTracker (http://copytracker.ec-lille.fr/?lang=en): Copytracker is software to detect plagiarism in text documents. It can be freely downloaded and used.
ii) Plagiarismdetect (http://www.plagiarismdetect.com): A plugin to MS Office 2007 to check for plagiarism.
iii) Plagium (http://www.plagium.com): In this software, one can track plagiarism by pasting the original text in the webpage of the site.
iv) SeeSources (http://seesources.com): SeeSources.com takes a whole text, automatically extracts its unique signatures and searches the Internet for them. It checks for plagiarism online - no need to install software.
v) Plagiarism-detector (http://www.plagiarism-detector.com): Plagiarism-Detector (also known as Plagiarism-Detector Software) is a standalone Microsoft Windows based computer desktop application created by SkyLine, Inc. Plagiarism-Detector targets mainly individual users, though Institutions (typically universities and high schools) can acquire licenses to use the software for their own purposes.
vi) SafeAssign (http://www.mydropbox.com): SafeAssign™ is a plagiarism prevention service, offered by Blackboard to its Blackboard Learning System Enterprise, Vista Enterprise and CE Enterprise clients. This service helps educators prevent plagiarism by detecting unoriginal content in student papers. In addition to acting as a plagiarism deterrent, it also has features designed to aid in educating students about plagiarism and importance of proper attribution of any borrowed content.
vii) Turnitin WriteCycle (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html): Turnitin (also known as Turnitin.com) is an Internet-based plagiarism-detection service created by iParadigms, LLC. Institutions (typically universities and high schools) buy licenses to submit essays to the Turnitin website, which checks the document for plagiarism. Turnitin WriteCycle is the complete, web-based solution for managing writing assignments, via multiple phases of feedback and revisions. Its three interrelated services greatly accelerate the learning process, involving students in their own development, freeing instructors from the burden of tracking papers, and promoting critical thinking, while maintaining academic integrity.
viii) Scanmyessay (http://www.scanmyessay.com): Scan My Essay scans over six billion online sources including websites, online journals, news sources and much more online to detect plagiarism.
ix) Urkund (http://www.urkund.com/int/en/): Urkund is owned and developed by PrioInfo AB. PrioInfo is a company with over 25 years of experience of the requirements and needs of information intensive organizations. PrioInfo is an agent for net based services from a multitude of international information providers and publishers. PrioInfo also delivers a licensed e-book platform to corporations, publishers and libraries as well as Universities.
x) Copyscape (http://copyscape.com): The Copyscape service makes it easy to find copies of any document on the Web. Simply one needs to type the URL of the document or web page and paste the address into the Copyscape. Copyscape finds sites that have copied the content without permission, as well as those that have copied with quote.
xi) Google (http://www.google.com): One can also check for the plagiarized text by way of using Google. For this one needs to copy the text with a maximum of 32 words from any article and paste it in the Google Search box and makes a search to know who have copied those words or from whose work the present content is copied from. One can also receive Google Alert by way of Email when new instances of the phrases for which search has been initiated are published on the Internet.
xii) Plagiarism Checker (http://www.plagiarismchecker.com/): One can type one or more phrases from different parts of a document into the search box of Plagiarism Checker by hitting the Enter key after each phrase and then can make a search to know from where the present contents has been copied or whom copied from the present content.
xiii) Glatt Plagiarism Screening Program (GPSP) (http://www.plagiarism.com/screening.htm): A highly sophisticated Screening Program to detect plagiarism. Typically used in academic institutions or in the legal profession for cases of copyright infringement.
xiv) Glatt Plagiarism Self-Detection Program (GPSD) (http://www.plagiarism.com/self.detect.htm ): GPSD test is designed to help one become more sensitive to his/her own writing style. It also helps to gain some insight into how to detect and avoid plagiarism. One can order a Windows 95/98/NT version of this test for $65.
xv) JPlag (https://www.ipd.uni-karlsruhe.de/jplag/): JPlag is a system that finds similarities among multiple sets of source code files. This way it can detect software plagiarism.
xvi) MOSS (http://theory.stanford.edu/~aiken/moss): Moss (for a Measure Of Software Similarity) is an automatic system for determining the similarity of C, C++, Java, Pascal, Ada, ML, Lisp, or Scheme programs. To date, the main application of Moss has been in detecting plagiarism in programming classes. Since its development in 1994, Moss has been very effective in this role.
xvii) Plagium (http://www.plagium.com): In Plagium, you can track plagiarism by pasting the original text in the box.
xviii) AC (http://tangow.ii.uam.es/ac): AC is an anti-plagiarism system for programming assignments. It aids instructors and graders to detect plagiarism within a group of assignments written in C, C++ or Java. AC incorporates multiple similarity detection algorithms found in the scientific literature, and allows their results to be visualized graphically.
xix) Plaggie (http://www.cs.hut.fi/Software/Plaggie): Plaggie is a stand-alone source code plagiarism detection engine purposed for Java programming exercises. Plaggie's functionality and graphical user interface are similar with previously published JPlag web service but unlike JPlag, Plaggie must be installed locally and its source code is open.
xx) Sherlock (http://www.cs.su.oz.au/~scilect/sherlock): Sherlock is a program which finds similarities between textual documents. It uses digital signatures to find similar pieces of text. A digital signature is a number which is formed by turning several words in the input into a series of bits and joining those bits into a number.
xxi) SID (http://genome.math.uwaterloo.ca/SID): SID stands for Shared Information Distance or Software Integrity Detection. It detects similarity between programs by computing the shared information between them.