1. Introduction: Representing some one’s work as one’s own is called as plagiarism. Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one’s own original work. “Unless otherwise stated, what you write will be regarded as your own work; the ideas will be considered you own unless you say to the contrary” (Walliman, 2005, p. 336). One should be honest, fair and respect other’s work and are expected to give same kind of treatment what he/she expects from the readers of their own publication(s) and it will be good to use other’s text, diagram, table, data, picture with their permission only. Generally, for academic work, author as well as publisher feels free to grant permission to use their material in your work.


2. Types of Plagiarism: Plagiarism can be intentional or accidental.

a) Intentional: The intentional plagiarism refers to using someone’s ideas or results without citing the source, using someone’s ideas or results without using quotation marks, even though he/she cites the source and using someone’s ideas or results without crediting the source.

b) Accidental Plagiarism: The accidental plagiarism is when the author does not know what is considered as plagiarism and he/she can’t think of a better way to say it and so copy sentences, phrases, or even sentence structure from the original without using quotation marks and in the event while preparing the notes he/she does not put exact wording in quotation marks and so he/she plagiarizes without realizing it.


3. Self-plagiarism: In academic fields, self-plagiarism also known as recycling fraud occurs when an author reuses portions of his own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication. Articles of this nature are often referred to as duplicate or multiple publications. In addition, there can be a copyright issue if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity.

It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. However, these researchers also obey limits: If half an article is the same as a previous one, it is usually rejected. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of recycling.


4. Consequences of Plagiarism: The widespread use of computers and the advent of the Internet have made it easier to plagiarize the work of others.  Plagiarism should be avoided in the strictest sense because it leads to-

a) Expulsion from the Institute: Plagiarized work can result in expulsion, rejection of a paper submitted for publication, denial of an advanced degree or failing in the course. Every year – thousands of research scholars and students are expelled for committing plagiarism. The action taken by school / department / university where research work are undertaken includes dismissal from school / department / university, dismissal from carrying out further research work, dismissal from supervising other research work, making correctness to the research work, sending the scholar to ethical training, and just warning.

b) Termination of Employment: Action from the employer includes termination of employment or job / academic career, suspension with pay, warning, etc.

c) Repayment of Grant: Action taken by research funding agencies includes repayment of grant / fund / award, debarred from future research grant, etc.

d) Loss of Respect: Plagiarism intentional or accidental is considered academic misconduct. Academic misconduct leads to loss of respect and recognition from the peers, and society at large.

5. How Plagiarism can be Avoided: The plagiarism in best can be avoided by adopting the following measure-

a) Cite when you type: As you take notes, put quotation marks around any wording that you copy directly from the source so that later you can put it into your own words and won’t accidentally plagiarize.

b) Put quotation followed by citation: If you copy something word for word, put quotation marks around it and cite it.

c) Cite always: If you paraphrase by putting ideas into your own words, cite the source of the ideas.

d) Put complete reference: Put the complete bibliographic reference for all citations in the Bibliography (or Works Cited).

e) Partially forgotten means wholly forgotten: If you cannot remember the source from where you have copied the information or idea, then you don’t have the right to use that text or idea in your paper.

f) Use content compositing software: Use some content composing software that will help in creating plagiarize-proof content.

g) Use Plagiarism detection software: Use plagiarism detection software on your own text and make necessary correction when the text is in your control.


6. How to Detect Plagiarism: Plagiarism detection is the process of locating instances of plagiarism within a work or document. Detection of plagiarism can be either manual or software-assisted. Manual detection requires substantial effort and excellent memory, and is impractical in cases where too many documents must be compared, or original documents are not available for comparison. Software-assisted detection allows vast collections of documents to be compared to each other, making successful detection much more likely. Nowadays, there are a number of software packages available in the market to detect plagiarism. Generally, plagiarism detection software can be categorized into two categories- commercial and free. Kindly note that no free software provides in depth analysis of your text as it happened with the commercial software.

a) Free Online Text Plagiarism Checking Softwares: If you have the internet connection, then the following platform can be used to check text plagiarism freely.

i) Google ( Instructors using Google Classroom and Assignments in G Suite for Education can enable up to three originality reports per class, for free. 

ii) DupliChecker ( DupliChecker is a free tool where you need to copy-paste (maximum of 1500 words), or upload your essay, thesis, website content or articles, and click ‘search’, and you’ll get the analysis reports within seconds.

iii) PaperRater ( Paper Rater offers three tools: Grammar Checking, Plagiarism Detection and Writing Suggestions. It is absolutely free to use and it allows you to check for plagiarized parts in your essays.

iv) ( Plagiarisma has a search box as well as a software download available for Windows. Users can also search for entire URLs and files in HTML, DOC, DOCX, RTF, TXT, ODT and PDF formats.

v) PlagTracker ( Plagtracker is another online plagiarism detection service that checks whether similar text content appears elsewhere on the web. It starts scanning all internet pages and more than 20 million academic works for any plagiarized copy. After scanning, you will receive a report with details about your work.

vi) Plagium ( Plagium is a free plagiarism detection tool where you can track plagiarism by pasting the original text (max 25000 characters) in the box and hit "search. It is available in six languages and an Alert feature is also available.

vii) Plagiarism Checker ( In Plagiarism Checker, you can copy and paste the text in its box to check for plagiarism.

b) Free Downloadable Text Plagiarism Checking Softwares: The following softwares can be downloaded into your local computer and can be used to check for plagiarism.

i) Scanmyessay ( Scan My Essay scans over 10 billion online sources including websites, online journals, news sources and much more online to detect plagiarism. It’s free and you can download it very easily. Just note that Viper is available to Microsoft Windows users only.

ii) Sherlock ( Sherlock is a program which finds similarities between textual documents and computer source code. It uses digital signatures to find similar pieces of text. A digital signature is a number which is formed by turning several words in the input into a series of bits and joining those bits into a number.


c) Commercial Online Text Plagiarism Checking Softwares: If you have the internet connection and the fund to support, then the following platform can be used to check for comprehensive text plagiarism.

i) Turnitin ( Turnitin (also known as is an Internet-based plagiarism-detection service created by iParadigms, LLC. Institutions (typically universities and high schools) buy licenses to submit essays to the Turnitin website, which checks the document for plagiarism. Turnitin WriteCycle is the complete, web-based solution for managing writing assignments, via multiple phases of feedback and revisions. Its three interrelated services greatly accelerate the learning process, involving students in their own development, freeing instructors from the burden of tracking papers, and promoting critical thinking, while maintaining academic integrity.

ii) iThenticate ( iThenticate is a plagiarism detection service for the corporate market, from iParadigms, LLC, which also runs the websites Turnitin and

iii) Urkund ( Urkund is owned and developed by PrioInfo AB. PrioInfo is a company with over 25 years of experience of the requirements and needs of information intensive organizations. PrioInfo is an agent for net based services from a multitude of international information providers and publishers. PrioInfo also delivers a licensed e-book platform to corporations, publishers and libraries as well as Universities.

iv) Plagiarism Detect ( offers you a plagiarism-checking service for texts written in English and Spanish. All the texts (A through Z and 0 through 9) are scanned for similarities with open online sources.


d) Commercial Downloadable Text Plagiarism Checking Softwares: The following softwares are available that you can buy and download to your local machine to check for text plagiarism.

i) Plagiarism-detector ( Plagiarism-Detector (also known as Plagiarism-Detector Software) is a standalone Microsoft Windows based computer desktop application created by SkyLine, Inc. Plagiarism-Detector targets mainly individual users, though Institutions (typically universities and high schools) can acquire licenses to use the software for their own purposes.


e) Free Online Website Plagiarism Checking Softwares: If you have the internet connection, then the following platform can be used to check website plagiarism freely.

i) Copyscape ( The Copyscape service makes it easy to find copies of any document or website on the Web. Simply one needs to type the URL of the document or web page and paste the address into the Copyscape. Copyscape finds sites that have copied the content without permission, as well as those that have copied with quote.

ii) ( Plagiarisma has a search box as well as a software download available for Windows. Users can also search for entire URLs and files in HTML, DOC, DOCX, RTF, TXT, ODT and PDF formats.


f) Free Downloadable Computer Program Plagiarism Checking Softwares: The following softwares can be downloaded into your local computer and can be used to check for software plagiarism.

i) MOSS ( Moss (for a Measure Of Software Similarity) is an automatic system for determining the similarity of C, C++, Java, Pascal, Ada, ML, Lisp, or Scheme programs. To date, the main application of Moss has been in detecting plagiarism in programming classes. Since its development in 1994, Moss has been very effective in this role.

ii) JPlag ( JPlag is a system that finds similarities among multiple sets of source code files. This way it can detect software plagiarism.

iii) Plaggie ( Plaggie is a stand-alone source code plagiarism detection engine purposed for Java programming exercises. Plaggie's functionality and graphical user interface are similar with previously published JPlag web service but unlike JPlag, Plaggie must be installed locally and its source code is open.


7. Conclusion: Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation and stealing and publication of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions and the representation of them as one’s own original work. Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement. Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion.  In order to avoid the stigma and shame of being labeled as plagiarism, acknowledging others work is always needed.

How to Cite this Article?

APA Citation, 7th Ed.:  Barman, B. (2020). A comprehensive book on Library and Information Science. New Publications.

Chicago 16th Ed.:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. Guwahati: New Publications, 2020.

MLA Citation 8th Ed:  Barman, Badan. A Comprehensive Book on Library and Information Science. New Publications, 2020.