Motivation of Personnel: The term motivation is derived from the work motive which may be defined as needs, wants, drives or impulses within an individual. Motivation may be defined as the complex of force inspiring a person at work to intensify his willingness to use his capacities for the achievement of certain objectives. Motivation is something that motivates a person into action and continues him in the courses of action enthusiastically. It determines the behaviors of the person to a great extent.
According to D. E. McFarland, motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspiration, striving or needs direct control or explain the behaviours of human beings.
An employee of the library should not think that he has got a job and he has to do his job. In the library it is the service which matters and this service is not in one’s own job but in the service of the library as a whole. Therefore, the motivation of the library staff is of prime importance.
a) How of Motivation: The workers must be motivated by congenial service condition and environment. They must be made to realize that if they work properly they will be rewarded for the same through promotion, recognition and incentives so that they perform their job willingly and conscientiously. The motivation will create proper environment for employees to put in their best effort and work more. For motivation of personnel following factors should be considered-
i) Providing a suitable environment for work and elimination of potential sources of danger in work;
ii) Determination of the motives or needs of the worker and providing an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their need and satisfaction. The incentives may be monetary reward, status, power, etc.
iii) Persons should be directed, controlled and when needed must be threatened.
iv) Giving scope to develop and control worker’s own commitments, responsibility, self direction, self control, etc.
v) Giving recognition to the worker for their achievement.
vi) Giving scope for achievement needs i.e. giving responsibility for problem solving;
vii) Creating positive feeling towards job;
viii) Acceptance of the hierarchy level of need and to apply it in motivating the personnel.
b) Theories of Motivation: There are number of theories on human motivation in general. These can be applied to the personnel management in libraries also. Some of them are-
i) Douglas McGregor: Douglas McGregor in his “the Human side of enterprise”, 1960 describes that there are two contrasting sets of assumption about individual and their perception of work.
According to him, the theory “X” assumes that the human being on an average has a inherent dislike of work and always will avoid it. So the personnel should be directed, controlled and even threatened where necessary to put them to work. They need direction for their work and when reluctant to take much responsibility in their work. They are also not ambitious and prefer to have a secure and predictable work situation.
In contrast to the above, he also describes the theory “Y” which argues that motivation comes from within and one can work efficiently without persuasion. He states-
* Individual will seek responsibility when conditions are favourable for work;
* Workers wish to develop and control their own commitments in a favourable work situation;
* They will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed under proper condition.
* They will learn to accept responsibility as well as they will seek it.
* Workers will seek recognition for their achievement;
* They will make significant contribution to achieve the goal of the organization
In the situation of a library, both the theory of “X” and “Y” is applicable.
ii) David C. McClelland: David C. McClelland in “the achieving society”, 1961 describes the achievement motivation theory. In this theory, he emphasized the importance of high level of accomplishment or the satisfaction of “achievement needs”. The monetary reward, status and power have impact over the motivation of individual. He points out that the accomplishment of objectives is a prime factor. According to him, individual have a sense of achieving and will accept responsibility for problem solving even in an adverse situation. The entrepreneurial activity within a controlled environment is liked by the individual. If they are given the opportunity to develop in such a situation they will prove their efficiency.
iii) F. Herzberg: F. Herzberg in “Work and the nature of man”, 1968 describes his motivation – hygine theory. He made an extensive examination of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among various classes of professionals and non-professional staff. He found that the causes of satisfaction were not the same as the cause of dissatisfaction. The factor providing satisfaction in a job situation are the motivating factors and when there are absent in a situation the dissatisfaction causes in the form of indifference. The element of work generating positive feelings leading to greater productivity and job satisfaction are described as satisfiers. The satisfiers are achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibilities and advancement. These elements create a good climate of productivity and motivate individuals. On the other hand faulty planning, poor organizational policies, bad administration, environment, lacking inspiration and motivation, no-recognition of achievement and the like create dissatisfaction leading to low motivation and indifference.
iv) A. H. Maslow: A. H. Maslow in “Motivation and personality”, 1970 develops the theory that an individual is motivated by two kinds of needs – basic needs and those that are socially determined and that both of these must be satisfied to allow emotional maturity. The needs of an individual are in hierarchy just like a pyramid. At the base, the lowest strata are the basic physiological needs for survival. Next higher are the safety needs concerned with physical and psychological well-being and the next higher is the social well-being in terms of belonging and acceptance. Next higher to that are esteem needs and the self-confidence derived from recognition and status. At the top is self actualization – the zenith of the individual needs whereby his own potentialities are realized fully. Maslow gave emphasis on the progressive nature of needs achievements. When the lowest level is satisfied the individual strives for the next higher and in this way he aspires for the zenith. According to him, to motivate the personnel the progressive higher order should be created for the individual in any work situation to get the best performance from the individuals.
The motivation factors can be improved through better organization of work, the planning and implementation of work schedules in a better way, monitoring of the works done, elimination of bottle-necks in work schedules, proper flow-charting, assigning responsibilities to the individual, placing of right person at the right position capable of doing the job are certain situations which influence the motivation factor. But higher effective factor is the staff participation.
c) Significance of Motivation: Motivation is called the core of management. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the will to work among the subordinates. Some of the significance of motivation is-
i) The workers are generally immensely capable of doing some work. Nothing can be achieved if they are not willing to work. So motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of management in creation of will to work.
ii) Motivation helps in the better utilization of resources, abilities and capabilities of the worker.
iii) Higher motivation leads to job satisfaction of the worker which can reduce the absenteeism, turnover and unrest of the staff. This will create better relation in the library. Workers will be willing to join in the organization.
iv) Motivation will faster team spirit among the workers and increase their loyalty to the work group.
v) Motivation is intimately connected with morals. Good motivation leads to higher moral.