Human Resource Management: Human resources are acknowledged as the most valuable and important assets in any organization and recognized as a valued resources with potential. These are no longer associated with problems and cost. Human resource management is sometimes also known as personal management.
a) Definition: Personal management implies a process of getting the best out of the employees of an organization by means of judicious selection, tactful dealing and by seeking their replacement, if necessary.
A formal definition of personnel management is that it is a function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of employees to achieve organizational and individual goals.
According to O. Tead and H.C. Metcaffe personnel management is “the direction and co-operation of human relations of any organization with a view to getting the maximum necessary production with a minimum of effort and friction and with a proper regard for the genuine well being of workers.”
b) Aims of Personnel Management: The aim of personnel management is to develop capabilities of individual persons towards understanding appreciation and solution of problem. Each staff member should get a feeling that his works form a vital part of the working of the organization. In simple, the aims of personnel management are:
i) Optimum output;
ii) Development of workers capabilities by enabling the workers to derive maximum satisfaction from their work;
iii) Development of team spirit;
iv) Continuous vigilance.
c) Importance of Personnel Management: The rationale behind recognizing the role of human resources management is that:
i) Human resources who are employed in the organization are human being with some aspiration and ambition in life.
ii) Though humans are utilized as means to an end in the production process they are ultimate sharer of profit.
iii) The personnel being a part of the community are also the consumers as well.
iv) The manpower of any organization is responsible to perform the duties and all operational work and is the one who ran an organization.
v) Human resources are the best resources of any organization in comparison to all other physical resources. It is they who convert material into suitable commodities.
vi) If the energies of the personnel can be channelised in right direction, they can overcome the constrains and limitations of other physical resources.
d) Function of Personnel Management: Personnel management is a staff function. It is advisory in nature. It recommends, cooperates and counsels. The main functions of personnel management may be grouped under the following broad heading-
i) Manpower planning.
ii) Job analysis
iii) Job description
v) Recruitment, selection and test
vi) Induction, orientation and placement
vii) Training and development (continuous education)
viii) Motivation of personnel
x) Wage and salary administration
xi) Employer – Employee relationship (supervise, control)
xii) Performance evaluation.
Henry Mintzberg in his “the nature of managerial work” (1973) described the following roles to be played by the top man in management.
viii) Disturbance handler
ix) Resource allocator
e) Problems in Personnel Management: The problems associated with personnel management are-
i) Increasing government regulation regarding employment practices: The reservation for schedule caste and tribes, backward classes, government regulation on recruitment, resignation, dismissal, retirement, etc. creates problem in personnel management.
ii) Pressure and bargaining with union: The pressure from union or bargaining with union for working condition and benefit creates another problem.
iii) Insufficient budget: Decreasing or stable budget can disturb staffing pattern. It might lead to vacancies being allowed to remain vacant.