1. Introduction: When ideas get organized or systematized in the form of a body of idea, a subject is formed.
2. Need of study of formation of subject: The following are some of the need for the study of formation of subject.
a) The study serve as preliminary to the theory of freely- faceted classification.
b) The study has lead to the development of a typology or relation, which has proved useful for designing scheme for classification.
c) The study enables the prediction and understanding of various kinds of interrelations between subject and their components.
d) It has been found useful in teaching and learning the subject of study.
3. Mode of Formation of Subject: In 1950, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan put forward the viewpoint that subject in the universe of knowledge can be formed by means of four modes of formation-
a) Loose Assemblage
According to M. P. Gopinath and S. Seetharama the following are the modes of formation of subject and isolate or relations between the components of a subject.
a) Loose Assemblage
f) Agglomeration and
3.1 Loose Assemblage: There are three different modes of formation of subject by loose assemblage i.e
a) Loose Assemblage 1: In this mode of formation, two or more subjects – simple or compound are studied in their mutual relation. Such a relation is called inter subject phase relation and gives rise to a complex subject. The phase relations taken under this mode of formation are –
i) General Relation: Example: The relation of mathematics and biology
ii) Bias: Example: Physics bias to biology
iii) Comparison: Example: Physics compared with chemistry
iv) Difference: Example: The difference between physics and chemistry
v) Influence: Example: The influence of physics on biology
vi) Tool: Here one subject may be used as a tool for studying another subject. Example: The application of statistics to the study of library science.
b) Loose Assemblage 2: In this mode of formation two or more isolate from one and the same schedule are brought into mutual relation. Such a relation is called the inter – schedule phase relation and give rise to a complex isolate. The phase relations taken under this mode of formation are –
i) General Relation: Example: The relation between Jainism and Hinduism
ii) Bias: Example: Bias of Bernard show to Shakespeare.
iii) Comparison: Example: The comparison between Hinduism and Buddhism
iv) Difference: Example: The difference between Hinduism and Buddhism
c) Loose Assemblage 3: In this mode of formation “two or more isolate taken from the one and the same array of order higher than 1 in one and the same schedule are brought into mutual relation”. Such a relation is called the “inter-array-phase relation” and gives rise to a complex isolate. The phase relations taken under this mode of formation are –
a) General: Example: The relation between UDC and DDC
b) Bias: Example: The bias of UDC towards DDC
c) Comparison: Example: CC compared with DDC
d) Difference: Example: The difference between CC and DDC
e) Influence: Example: The influence of CC on DDC
3.2 Lamination: Lamination is of two types
a) Lamination 1: In this form of mode “one or more isolate facets are combined with a basic subject giving rise to a compound subject”. Eg. Botany morphology
b) Lamination 2: In this form of mode
i) Two or more species of basic subject going with the same primary basic subject are compounded over one another, giving rise to a compound basic subject. Eg. Radiation physics (species of basic subject) + wave mechanics (species of basic subject) = Study or radiation according to wave mechanics (compound subject)
ii) Two or more isolates from the same schedule of isolates are compounded, giving rise to the compound isolate. Eg. Urban youths
3.3 Fission: In this form of mode “a basic subject or an isolate is split into subdivision which is commonly known as fragmentation. Fission is of mainly four types
a) Fission of basic subject: In this type one primary basic subject fissioned into secondary basic subject. Eg. The primary basic subject “philosophy” may be fissioned into the secondary basic subject- logic, epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and aesthetics
b) Fission of isolate ideas: The fission of isolate idea may be achieved in the following ways
i) As an array division. Example: Fissioning of an isolate idea “Asia” gives us array division such as Iran, India, Nepal, Afghanistan, etc.
ii) As the combination of a principal isolate and a speciator. Example: Bicycle – Hind branc. Here Bycycle is a principal isolate and Hind brand is a speciator.
iii) Dissection: This term used to denote fission when we consider the array of division of an isolate or a basic subject resulting from fission.
iv) Denudation: This term is used to denote fission when we consider one and only one subdivision of an isolate or a basic subject resulting from fission.
3.4 Fusion: In this form of mode “two or more primary basic subjects are fused together in such a way that each of them loses its individuality with respect to the schedule of isolates needed to form the compound subject going with it”. This gives rise to a new primary basic subject eg. Biochemistry is a primary basic subject achieved by the fusion of biology and chemistry.
3.5 Distillation: In this form of mode “a pure discipline is evolved as primary basic subject from its appearance-in-action in diverse compound subject going with either different basic subject or one and the same basic subject. Distillation gives rise to primary basic subject. Example – Microbiology, Forestry
3.6 Agglomeration: “Agglomeratin is the process of the collecting together of entities into large masses without cohesion among the components. An agglomeration can be a basic subject or it can also be an isolate idea. Agglomeration may be made up of consecutive constituent or even non-consecutive constituents.
Example: Agglomeration of kind 1: Natural sciences
Example: Agglomeration of kind 2: History and Economics
3.7 Cluster: In the cluster form of mode, “several specialized studies on a particular phenomenon or an entity are gathered together into a field of study”.